Paintball gun stand measurements

paintball gun stand measurements

Homemade paintball gun stand constructed from PVC and foam noodles. DIY measuring and lapping a worn surface plate by Floradawg on A paintball marker is the primary piece of equipment used in to be very short in length and very lightweight (similar to a mouse click;. Homemade Gun stand Paintball Diy, Pvc Paint, Pvc Pipes, Survival Stuff, Diy PVC paintball marker stand Dimensions: in H x 13 in W x in L.

Paintball gun stand measurements - final

Longbow Paintball Gun

This was based on the longbow paintball gun, but as i only had one photo of it, i have changed a few things. Measurements may not be accurate. This model was designed by me. This design has been updated from my old one and it now has a Co2 bottle and a new hand grip and trigger as well as a new scope. About the Longbow: Designed for the one-shot, one-kill player, the Longbow Sniper takes accuracy and stealth to a whole new level. Built on the back of the highest performance woods guns and pumps, the Longbow adds superior ergonomics to peak performance. The result: a paintball gun that looks, feels and shoots like a sniper gun should. The Longbow system is completely modular – allowing you to mix and match Longbow components with other performance parts to create your own perfect sniper solution. The sleek lines of the Longbow Sniper start with the Longbow Magazine System. Through a revolutionary detachable, horizontal clip, the Longbow requires no hopper. Twenty-one paintballs stand ready to spring-feed into your breach. This leaves your sniper rifle light, lean and low profile. Best of all, you will finally enjoy an uncluttered sight picture with the scope of your choice. The Longbow system allows you to carry additional loaded magazines that can be instantly swapped out with the push of a button. #accurate #ball #battle #bow #co2 #gun #hopper #long #longbow #paint #paintball #rifle #scope #sniper #stock #war

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PVC paintball gun holder

I play paintball frequently enough that I finally broke down and made myself a paintball gun holder. Is it a requirement for paintball? Of course not! Is it a convenient place to put your gun between games while you fill the hopper and work on it? Yes!

I initially tried a different design but didn&#;t like it. This was my second attempt and I&#;m quite pleased with it. I found several youtube videos showing how to make PVC paintball gun holders. They showed what I needed to see, but in almost all of them, the people creating the videos didn&#;t measure anything &#; they were just winging it. I&#;m not one for winging it. So, after successfully building my own, here are detailed instructions.

First, supplies. You&#;ll need:

  • PVC cutting tool (you can use a hacksaw if needed)
  • dry erase marker
  • ruler or tape measure
  • PVC fittings &#; all in 3/4 inch PVC (unless otherwise indicated):
    • 4 &#; 90 degree elbows
    • 4 &#; 45 degree elbows
    • 3 &#; tees
    • 1 &#; 3/4&#; to 1&#; tee
  • 3/4 PVC pipe cut to the following lengths:
    • 1 &#; 24 centimeter piece (9 1/2 inches)
    • 4 &#; 22 centimeter pieces (8 2/3 inches)
    • 1 &#; 16 centimeter piece (6 1/3 inches)
    • 2 &#; 11 centimeter pieces (4 1/3 inches)
    • 4 &#; 10 centimeter pieces (4 inches)
    • 1 &#; centimeter pieces (2 1/4 inches)
    • 2 &#; centimeter pieces (1 3/4 inches)

Here&#;s a photo of all the pieces labeled:

Once you cut all of the pieces of PVC, then it&#;s just a matter of assembling them in the right way. Here are the pieces assembled and labeled:

The hardest part of this build was cutting the 3/4&#; x 1&#; tee in half. That isn&#;t actually required. You could also just use another 3/4&#; tee and turn it sideways, placing it under the barrel. If you do, the length of PVC that holds it up will need to be slightly shorter.

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Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

Paintball equipment

Paintball is an equipment-intensive sport and in order to safely conduct a game, every player requires a marker with propellant to fire the paint, a mask to protect the eyes and face, paintballs, and a loader to hold them. To ensure safety off the playing field, a barrel sock or plug for the marker is also compulsory.

Depending on type of play, additional equipment can include gloves, a pack designed to comfortably carry pods containing extra paintballs, and a squeegee or swab for cleaning out the barrel in case a paintball breaks. Players may also elect to wear padding or armor in order to reduce the impact of incoming paintballs.

Markers[edit]

Main article: Paintball marker

A paintball marker is the primary piece of equipment used in paintball to tag an opposing player. An expanding gas (usually carbon dioxide or high-pressure air) forces a paintball through the barrel at a muzzle velocity of approximately 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). This velocity is sufficient for most paintballs to break upon impact at a distance, but not so fast as to cause tissue damage beyond mild bruising. Nearly every commercial field has, and strictly enforces, a rule limiting the muzzle velocity of a paintball at or below 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). Speeds above are typically needed to ensure the paintball breaks on impact; the field limit is thus usually somewhere in between, often fps. The technology used to design and build paintball markers has advanced over time, beginning with the original "Nel-Spot" bolt-action pistols, progressing to pump-action markers, then to semi-automatic mechanical markers, and finally culminating in the electropneumatic paintball marker.

In mechanical designs, the trigger manipulates a sear, which is holding a hammer, ram, or sealed gas chamber in its resting state. Pulling the trigger releases the sear, allowing the marker's action to cycle. There are a variety of mechanical designs, the most common being the "blow-back" marker, which utilizes a spring-loaded ram released by the sear to open a pin valve; the pressurized gas released through the valve is directed through the bolt to fire the marker, and also pushes the ram back where it is caught again by the sear, resetting the action for the next shot. There are other systems that saw success in earlier days of the sport, such as blow-forward (AGD Automag) and pneumatically actuated recocking (WorrGames Autococker); elements of these designs were carried forward into modern electropneumatic designs but the original examples of these mechanisms are rarely seen today.

In electropneumatic designs, the trigger, instead of being mechanically linked to the action of the marker, simply activates an electronic microswitch (or more recently, a magnetic or optical sensor). That information is passed through control circuitry to a computer-controlled solenoid valve which can open and close very quickly and precisely, allowing gas to move into or out of various pressure chambers in the marker to move the bolt and fire the paintball. This disconnect of the trigger from the action allows electronic trigger pulls to be very short in length and very lightweight (similar to a mouse click; the mechanisms are virtually identical), which dramatically increases rate-of-fire over a fully mechanical design. Solenoid-controlled gas valve designs also allow for reduced weight of internal parts, which both lightens overall weight and reduces the time it takes for the marker to cycle through firing a single paintball.

In fully electropneumatic designs, there are two primary mechanism types:

  • The "poppet valve" (or simply "poppet") design functions similarly to a mechanical blowback or Autococker-style marker; when the trigger is pulled, low-pressure air from the solenoid brings the bolt forward to chamber the paintball and also sends a connected, weighted ram into a pin valve, which opens to allow high-pressure air into the chamber, launching the ball. Then, either additional air from the solenoid in a "two-way" design, or a spring in a "FASOR" (Forward Air, Spring-Operated Return) design, returns the bolt and ram to the open position. Another paintball drops into the open chamber and the action is ready to fire again. Poppets are typically valued for high gas efficiency, as the low-pressure system to move the ram and the limited time the high-pressure valve is open saves gas compared to most competing designs. However, the nature of the mechanism produces very loud "pops" when the marker is fired, and the movement of the ram and bolt and the sudden high-pressure release of air can increase recoil, affecting accuracy during rapid fire. They are also more mechanically complex; most designs require two regulators, one to adjust the "high-pressure" air launching the ball, and a second one to further lower the pressure to operate the ram.
  • The "spool valve" ("spoolie") typically uses the bolt itself to hold air in a filling chamber. This high-pressure air is either self-balancing so there is no net force to open the bolt (a "balanced" spool valve), or is kept in check by additional air from the solenoid pushing backward on the bolt (an "unbalanced" or "dump-valve" spool). When the trigger is pulled, the solenoid of a balanced system pushes the bolt forward, or in a dump-valve vents the air from the forward pressure chamber. As the bolt moves forward, it seals off the inlet allowing high-pressure gas into the filling chamber, and then releases the stored charge of air through the bolt into the main chamber to launch the ball. The solenoid then resets the bolt by allowing air to re-enter the forward chamber and pushing the bolt backward to re-seal the filling chamber and open the inlet. Spool valves are typically valued for their quieter and smoother operation, and their reduced mechanical complexity (often the only major moving part is the bolt), but are often less gas-efficient than poppet valves due to the large charge of air behind the bolt and the single operating pressure used both to move the bolt and launch the ball.

In addition to fully electropneumatic marker designs, electronic trigger frames, with a solenoid-controlled sear, can be fit to most mechanical "blow-back" designs, such as the Kingman Spyder line of entry-level markers. These allow the high rates of fire seen in full electropneumatic designs at a very low cost compared to higher-level markers; however they typically have both the higher recoil of poppets (even worse, typically, as the designs use a traditional high-mass hammer driven forward by a spring) and relatively low gas efficiency due to a single operating pressure.

Contrasting this move toward high rates of fire, there is also a strong following of stock-class paintball games, where players use older, purely mechanical pump-action marker designs to purposefully limit rate of fire. Pump markers require the player to recock the marker, using a pump handle similar to a pump-action shotgun, before each shot. Stock-class games and competitions require the use of pump markers, and also often limit the types and capacities of propellant sources and loading mechanisms that players may use. With the decreased rate of fire and carrying capacity, increased need for reloads of both paintballs and propellant, and the generally quieter report of these markers, stock-class play places more emphasis on accuracy, stealth, and tactics.

Propellants[edit]

Paintball markers are powered by the expansion of gas stored in a compressed gas bottle. The two most common forms of compressed gas are carbon dioxide and high-pressure air (HPA).

Carbon dioxide[edit]

Because CO2 becomes a liquid when compressed, it must expand to a gas in order to be used by most paintball markers, although several older models actually require liquid CO2 in order for proper operation.[1] This expansion is not adiabatic and requires energy, causing the tank to cool as heat is used to expand the liquid CO2 into gas. Eventually, under sustained fire, and especially in cold weather, the tank can become so cold that ice crystals form on it. If the CO2 bottle does not have an anti-siphon tube fitted, or is shaken while firing, the liquid CO2 may enter the marker. The liquid CO2 then passes through the marker instead of the tank, evaporating and causing the marker to freeze. This results in large clouds of CO2 vapor ejected from the marker upon firing, caused by the liquid CO2 evaporating in/around the barrel. This is known as "drawing liquid". This can cause damage to internal seals and O-Rings, and can "freeze" some markers, putting it out of commission for some time while it warms back up. Simple operation designs such as in-line blow-back (most Tippmanns), guns designed before HPA was more widely used, or guns using gram CO2 powerlets are usually not affected by this problem, but it can still cause damage to the marker over time. For this particular reason, most high-end markers recommend that you use HPA. Technically, CO2 and HPA can propel the paintball, but when high rates of fire are attained, liquid is sucked into the marker which can damage or even destroy electrical components inside the marker such as the solenoid. Never leave a CO2 container in sunlight, as the heat will cause the gas to expand to a dangerous level. The tanks include safety valves in their construction, but there is no need to use them or take unnecessary risks.

With normal back-bottle setups (or, air systems utilizing a horizontal air source adapter, more commonly called an ASA), the less dense gaseous CO2 will rise to the top half of the tank. Normally, ASAs are angled slightly so the gaseous CO2 is always available at the valve of the tank. Special devices known as anti-siphon tubes extend the mouth of the valve, and provide only CO2 from the top part of the tank.

During rapid successions of shots, gaseous CO2 is used up. Liquid CO2 will take some time to evaporate and rebuild the internal pressure. This process causes potentially large changes in velocity and therefore, in accuracy and range.

High-pressure air or N2[edit]

A Pure Energy N2tank with a remote line attached

The newer high-pressure air (HPA) paintball markers use compressed air or nitrogen (N2) for propulsion, to attempt to offset issues with other types of propellants such as CO
2. Due to nitrogen's low critical point, when pure nitrogen or air (which is 78% nitrogen) is compressed, it remains in gaseous form unless the temperature goes well below −&#;°C (−&#;°F). When it expands, the tank also cools due to the Joule-Thomson effect, but at a far lower rate than liquid CO
2 because it does not have to phase-change from liquid to gas. The lack of vaporization reduces the variation in output gas pressure associated with rapid successions of firing cycles, improving accuracy and reducing the chance of "freeze-up" malfunctions.

However, because the propellant gas is stored at higher pressures (up to 34&#;MPa or 4,&#;psi) while liquid CO2 is stored at around 8&#;MPa or 1,&#;psi, HPA tanks need to be built to higher pressure ratings and are thus heavier and more expensive. The tanks themselves can either be filled with pure N2 or air (which is 78% N2). Tanks smaller than &#;L (67&#;cu&#;in) may not last heated matches, while larger tanks are cumbersome and require mounting options that create a larger marker profile.

There are two different kinds of HPA tanks in paintball. There are aluminium tanks which are preferred by younger players because while aluminium tanks are heavy and only hold about 21&#;MPa (3,&#;psi), they are also much cheaper to buy (at about USD $50, only slightly more than CO
2 tanks). The second kind of tank is made from carbon fiber, which is much lighter and stronger than aluminium (being able to contain 31&#;MPa or 4,&#;psi and in some rare cases 35&#;MPa or 5,&#;psi, as opposed to only 14&#;MPa or 2,&#;psi that an aluminium tank will hold). Generally, carbon fiber tanks are preferred by more experienced players and buyers with a larger budget, because the qualities are very reliable and have proven themselves worthy of their generally hefty price tags.

HPA tanks are generally filled from specially designed air compressors which are made to create extremely high pressures (unlike shop compressors). Although HPA tanks may, in theory, be refilled from other sources such as a conventional scuba tank or an average general-purpose air compressor, the pressure available from these sources is far below the pressure that HPA tanks are designed for. For example, shop compressors create around 6,–13,&#;hPa (–&#;psi) range, an order of magnitude less than HPA tanks are designed for (typically in the range of 21–31&#;MPa or 3,–4,&#;psi). HPA tanks are filled from a nipple instead of the ASA valve, which allows them to be filled while the tank is still attached to the paintball marker.

Propane[edit]

In , Tippmann introduced the Tippmann C3 with PEP (Propane Enhanced Performance); the first paintball gun to use propane as a propellent.[2] This increased the number of balls that could be shot before needing to refill the tank (around times more: which gives 50, shots per millilitre tank), as well as having a lower gas pressure.

Comparison[edit]

Nitrogen is generally preferred over carbon dioxide for a few reasons. Nitrogen will not liquefy and leak into the marker, while if the CO2 tank does not have an anti-siphon tube installed, or if there is no expansion chamber or regulator, liquid CO2 can leak into the marker, causing damage to O-rings and dangerous overpressures. The solenoid valves on electro-pneumatic markers are particularly sensitive to this, and thus many manufacturers will specify to use only nitrogen or HPA with their electro-pneumatic markers. Because it is always controlled by 2 or more pressure regulators, Nitrogen generally has a more consistent shot velocity than CO2. This is because when the playing area is warm, the normally unregulated CO2 will expand more rapidly from the liquid form, causing the marker to fire at a higher velocity. But when the temperature is lower, either a cool day, or from rapid firing of the marker, the expansion within the tank occurs more slowly, causing a decrease in the velocity of the subsequent shots. This is especially apparent during rapid firing while using unregulated CO2. The cooling effect of rapid discharge of CO2 causes the temperature of the liquid CO2 to drop dramatically, resulting in a significant loss in overall pressure. This effect can be greatly overcome by the use of a regulator on the tank and one on the marker, and then setting the marker up to operate well on low pressure (about psi.). Most CO2 markers are designed to operate from a bare, unregulated tank of CO2. The heretical act of placing a regulator at the neck of the tank will 'filter' most of any liquid escaping, but also reduce the natural pressure from the CO2 tank in the process. Hence the need for the marker to operate on pressures well below the natural pressure of CO2. The second regulator is used to modulate the final pressure to a point below what the CO2 tank can deliver when frosty cold (around – psi.), or toasty warm (– psi.). A qualified air smith can perform the necessary changes inside the marker to accommodate the lower operating pressure. This adds some expense to the marker but is a solution if you don't have access to HPA (Nitrogen). Some markers prefer – psi. or more so they do not work well at pressures that CO2 provides at its natural, room temperature pressure, so adding regulators will be an exercise in futility.

The effect of temperature on HPA or nitrogen, on the other hand, is negligible. However, CO2 tanks are significantly cheaper than nitrogen tanks. The nitrogen tanks traditionally cost slightly less to be filled than the CO2 tanks at approximately three to five US dollars. Also, many fields offer better rates for HPA fills due to the lower cost to the field; HPA is generally cheaper to procure as it has myriad industrial applications, and the field can even purchase the equipment to pressurize their own cylinders on-site. CO2, on the other hand, must be separated from other gases before bottling, usually through super-cooling air to the condensation point of each gas, a process that requires far more sophisticated and expensive equipment when adding regulators to prevent liquid 'splash' and also avoid the dreaded sag in pressure,

Masks[edit]

A typical paintball mask with a MARPAT cover

Sometimes called "goggles", masks are safety devices that players are required to wear. These completely cover the eyes, mouth, ears and nostrils of a person. Some masks even feature throat guards. The lenses are designed to protect against paintballs traveling up to 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), but are not guaranteed to withstand impacts at greater speeds.

Double-layered or "thermal" lenses are also available. These lenses are much less prone to fogging. These work by separating an inside and an outside lens with an air chamber, that allows for the difference in temperature between the inside and the outside of the mask without forming condensation. However, if any moisture whatsoever somehow gets in between the two lenses, the inner faces of both lenses will fog, and it will take a very long time to dry out, if it does at all.

Fogging masks can be a significant hazard while playing. Besides the lost vision, players may be tempted to remove their mask and expose themselves to serious eye injuries.[3] To reduce fogging of lenses while playing, some masks include electric fans that remove humidity and dry the lens. This is especially useful for situations that require wearing the mask for extended periods of time, such as wood play, large games, or being a referee. Finally, there are many anti-fog topical solutions that players can apply.

The exterior of the thermal lenses (or the lenses, in non-thermal masks) is usually made of Polycarbonate. This material provides excellent impact resistance. Because polycarbonate is soft, these lenses are manufactured with anti-scratch coatings. But great care must be taken to keep proper care of the lenses. Many vendors recommend the immediate replacement of very scratched lenses, or lenses subjected to very strong impacts.

Generally, more expensive masks tend to be smaller (which in turn makes the player a smaller target), more comfortable, have more interchangeable parts and be made of soft enough material to get some bounces.[4]

While playing paintball, even just shooting at the ground or trees, wearing proper paintballing masks is mandatory for safety. Some paintballs are very thick and can bounce off the ground, and other objects, and hit people.

Hoppers/loaders[edit]

Main article: Paintball marker §&#;Hopper

Hoppers contain the paintball supply for a marker, much as magazines contain the ammunition on a regular rifle. With few exceptions, hoppers are all mounted above the marker, and most use gravity as the ultimate force to get the balls in the marker. That is to say, if most hoppers are turned upside down, the marker will not be fed with balls and will cease to fire.

There are three main types: Gravity Feed, Agitated Feed, and Force Feed loaders.

Gravity Feed hoppers often get jammed up with balls at the feed neck, which can result in a marker 'dry firing' (firing without paint) or chopping balls due to the timing of the ball entering the marker. This is detrimental to the speed and performance of the marker.

Agitated Feed hoppers improve on the Gravity method of feeding the marker. Some use simple agitation levers or paddles inside the hopper to shake up the balls and guide them down the feed neck. Others (sometimes colloquially known as 'revies') use a paddle wheel inside the hopper to force any balls reaching the bottom of the hopper into the feed neck. Agitated Feeders need gravity to keep the balls rolling toward the bottom of the hopper before they can reach the loading mechanism. The 'Revo' with 'Z-Board' uses an electric motor to spin the paddle wheel at high speed and this method remains one of the fastest loading systems as of March

Force Feed loaders create a stack of paint balls leading into the marker. Most of these hoppers maintain a constant tension on the ball stack to ensure that once a paintball is fired, a new one immediately takes its place. A special feed tube is sometimes used to allow placement of a hopper below the chamber, giving the marker a much lower profile. Any hopper-based loading system still relies on gravity to get paint into the drive portion of the loader itself. The 'Warp' loader uses an electric motor to rotate two silicone discs with ball-shaped divots, which add each ball to a stack headed down the feed tube into the chamber.

Helical Feed loaders are a form of Force Feed loader which use helix (or coil) shaped clips. In most designs, each clip is preloaded (typically before a match begins) with paintballs which are stacked under constant pressure to ensure a continuous feed of balls into the chamber. One drawback to this pressure is that paintballs stored in the clip will become deformed over time, causing jams or inaccuracy. Using a feed tube, these loaders can be mounted under a barrel. Helical feed loaders can fire continuously in any orientation. The 'Q-Loader' system uses a spring-driven clip, eliminating the potential noise of a motor-driven system. The 'Q-Loader' system is capable of loading balls in less than 3 seconds, though breakage can occur at higher spring tensions.

There is some confusion about the term 'loader'. A loader typically refers to a powered or constant-pressure system, whereas gravity feed systems are generally referred to only as a hopper. In short, a loader system may include a hopper, and a hopper may function using gravity without any loader at all, but the two terms are often used interchangeably.

Paintballs[edit]

Original Nelson paint tube produced around for oil-based paintballs.

Paintballs, also simply called "paint", are spherical gelatincapsules containing primarily polyethylene glycol, other non-toxic and water-soluble substances, and dye. Paintballs are made of materials found in food items, and are edible but taste disagreeable as they tend to dry up the mouth.[5] The use of polyethylene glycol (a laxative) in the fill can also cause gastrointestinal distress in individuals who eat a number of paintballs; therefore, they should be kept out of reach of young children. Early paintballs were made of glass and filled with inedible oil-based paint, since they were made for marking trees and cattle, but modern paintballs should easily wash out of most clothing. The color of the shell does not necessarily indicate the color of the fill.

Most common paintballs and paintball markers are described as &#;caliber (&#;mm), but many factors affect the exact dimensions. Paintballs and barrels vary in size from &#;caliber to &#;caliber (17&#;mm to 18&#;mm). In addition, paintballs are seldom perfectly round and are very sensitive to heat and moisture. A hot or humid day may result in paint swelling or becoming misshapen. Care should be taken to keep paintballs out of the sun and away from moisture. An insulated cooler works well for this on the field.

The gelatin shell of a paintball is designed to break upon impact, although ricochets or "bounces" may occur. There are many types of paintballs, including glow in the dark paintballs for use at night, scented paintballs, and formulations for winter play. When dropped on the ground, groundwater or condensation may swell the paintball, which could cause a jam in the barrel or rupture and foul the internal workings of the marker. Dropped ammunition is known as 'loose paint', and should not be used in paintball markers.

Generally speaking, paintballs of greater price are subjected to more stringent manufacturing processes, quality checks, and standards, making their size and shape more consistent. This is very important for accuracy. Better paintballs also tend to have thinner shells to improve the frequency of breaking on impact rather than bouncing, and thicker, more opaque fills that are more visible and harder to wipe off.

While it is theoretically possible to freeze a water-based paintball, the polyethylene glycol additive drastically lowers the freezing point of the mixture, making it highly unlikely to actually freeze it into something harder than a regular paintball. When introduced to a very cold environment, the paintball's shell will most likely dimple (making it less accurate) and the shell will become brittle.

U.S. SWAT teams often use paintball-like balls, also known as pepper balls, filled with oleoresin capsicum, the active ingredient of pepper spray, as a non-lethal incapacitation method. However, pepperballs are shot at a higher velocity than is safe for paintball (above &#;m/s (&#;ft/s)) and the shells are not made from gelatin, but rather a frangible plastic to make shots more painful for faster incapacitation. Pepperballs can be shot out of almost any paintball marker.

Recently, HydroTec has released a new paintball. It uses a corn-based shell and a fill which is 98% water. The paintball shell tolerates temperatures up to 49&#;°C (&#;°F). These features, along with a unique construction process, make for a much more consistent paintball.[6]

Within Islam, the consumption or even touch of anything pork-related is not allowed or considered to be Haram. So there have been requirements for Muslim players to use paintballs which are "Halal" which means approved by Islam. These paintballs are made from beef gelatine. These are often called "Halal paintballs".

Reusable paintballs[edit]

A reusable ball is a foam substitute for a paintball; one common brand is Reballs. Most reusable paintballs are the same size as normal paintballs, but weigh slightly more and do not contain a paint filling. As they do not break open to leave a paint mark on players, they are practical for indoor locations where an accumulation of paint from broken paintballs would be a problem. This makes this form of paintball questionable, since no mark of paint is left, it allows players to cheat much more easily. A Reball is more expensive than a paintball, but since they can be cleaned and reused many times, they potentially have a lower cost per use. Some paintball parks have added dedicated reball fields, and some fields have actually gone exclusive with Reballs, eliminating the use of paintballs entirely. The primary use of Reballs, as intended initially by the manufacturer, is as a practice aid for teams who wish to save money by using reusable ammunition.[7] Other manufacturers have created similar products, such as the V-Ball, a Velcro (hence the name V-Ball) reusable paintball. Reballs are also used at a lower velocity because of their inability to break on whoever they hit. For example, a Regular paintball will normally be shot at slightly less than 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), while a Reball is supposed to be used at around 73&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). It is noteworthy that the composition of Reballs results in increased ricochets, depending on the surfaces that they hit. Although these paintballs or reballs are cost-effective, they are not allowed on many courses, because Reballs can become dirty, and attempting to shoot the dirty Reball can damage and weaken the integrity of the barrel.

The term 'reusable balls' does not refer to paintballs that have been picked up from the ground.

Clothing[edit]

Woodsball players usually wear camouflageclothing.

Paintball clothing needs to be tough and durable. For woodsball, camouflage clothing is effective for blending in with the environment; players may wear army surplus military fatigues, Battle Dress Uniform (BDU), Army Combat Uniform (ACU) or DPM styles. For speedball, however, the small field and artificial obstacles make camouflage ineffective; players, therefore, will often choose to wear a brightly colored team uniform for ease of identification. For scenario games, players will tend to dress in a style appropriate to the character or force they are representing. In order to minimize the sting of close-range hits, players often wear extra layers of clothing padding as well.

Clothing worn for tournament paintballing is constrained by tournament rules, which prohibit thick padded materials likely to adversely affect the chance of paintballs breaking on the target.[8] Players need adequate padding to protect the elbows and knees for slides on hard ground and chest protectors for shots to the chest. The player(s) could get seriously injured if these parts are not protected.

Footwear varies enormously between Speedball and Woodsball/scenario games. In woodsball, the rough terrain and uneven, often muddy ground makes footwear with good grip and plenty of ankle support a necessity. This lends itself to boots, either military-style or walking/hiking boots. In speedball, however, the added weight of thick boots is a distinct disadvantage, as is the reduction in mobility. Speedball players, therefore, tend to wear athletic shoes with soft cleats designed for field sports, such as soccer or football.

Common accessories[edit]

Drop forward[edit]

A drop forward is a marker add-on which is used to reposition the air canister to a more comfortable position or one which improves the balance of the marker.[9] They usually tilt the canister onto a slight angle and move it forward of its original position. They come in all shapes and sizes, however, so it is a personal preference which direction the tank is "dropped" - it is possible to mount the tank vertically, reversed or almost any other conceivable position. Most players use it to assist with balancing the marker, or to reduce its total length to make it more maneuverable (particularly if it has an extremely long barrel). Some marker designs do not permit the installation of a stock if the air cylinder is left in its standard location, necessitating a drop-forward if the player wishes to install a stock to improve accuracy.

There is a dispute among many players, however, that a drop forward will make the player's profile unnecessarily tall and wide, as the tank pushes the loader higher up above the head and may cause the player to hold his/her arms out wider in play to make up for the unnatural angle the drop will put on a grip.

Remote line[edit]

A remote line is a hose (a gas line) which can be connected to a marker and to the tank, which allows the user more freedom of movement while handling the marker, because the tank can now be stored on a pod belt or in a pouch. Their utility lies in decreasing the weight and length of the marker, making it more maneuverable. However, they may get caught in trees and shrub, and if the tank is hit it still counts as a kill, even though it is on the player's back. Remote lines are not frequently used by tournament players, as it adds unnecessary weight (and the presence of the gas tank is factored into the design of tournament markers, making them extremely unbalanced if the tank is removed).

Some remote lines utilize a slide check as a valve.

Pod[edit]

Pods, also known as guppies or simply tubes, are simply rigid tubular plastic containers which hold paintballs. The most common pod size holds about paintballs; however, other sizes are available, and paintball pods are common at rental sites, while there are also pods for smaller paintball pistols which only have the capacity of 10 paintballs (such pods are usually called tubes). Standard pods use a spring-loaded plastic top to enable them to be opened quickly and single-handedly. There are variations - for example, Dye Lock Lid pods which use a simple locking mechanism to ensure they won't open accidentally, or Syn Shockpods, which are engineered to be able to be shaken vigorously without the paint inside breaking. The oldest and largest manufacturer of pods is Allen Paintball Products in Ohio USA, they have been making paintball products since

Harness[edit]

Harnesses, or pod packs, are hip-worn belt packs or full vests that hold pods full of paintballs, and in some cases the player's gas tank if using a remote line.

Most hoppers hold about paintballs, and many modern electropneumatic markers can empty a full hopper in 10&#;seconds of sustained fire. In woodsball, and especially in scenario paintball, a player may be away from a base at which they can reload for an extended period of time. In speedball, the necessity of suppressing fire requires a very large amount of paint for a single game or match. In both cases, a harness with pods allows a player to have a portable supply of paint, without weighing down his or her marker with an enormous hopper. Harnesses capable of carrying a tank in addition to pods are usually labeled with a +1 (e.g. A harness capable of carrying four pods and a tank would be labeled 4+1). In addition, newer harness design make use of collapsible "expansion sleeves" in between the "main" sleeves. Packs with expansion sleeves are generally labelled X+Y, for instance 4+5, and indicate the number of main sleeves followed by the number of expansion sleeves. Some packs have multiple "tiers" of expansions or extra sleeves in very different locations on the harness, and may be labelled 4+3+2 where the last number is the additional set of expansions.

Harnesses for speedball tend to consist of a bellyband with sleeves in the back for the pods, and are designed to carry widely varying amounts of paint while maintaining a small profile. They more often have expansion sleeves, though some woodsball harnesses feature them as well. Pods most often face lid-down, so that any pod can be reached by either of the player's hands and pulled out quickly, regardless of how the player is situated. Speedball harnesses rarely feature tank pouches; speedball players must refill tanks often, and switch hands often to lean out from the left or right of a bunker, both of which are made more complicated when using a remote line. For speed and convenience, speedball players often temporarily discard empty pods on the ground and retrieve them between games; for this reason, ease of reloading pods into the harness is often a secondary concern to player profile and ease of access.

Harnesses for woodsball have features designed to aid concealment, such as camouflage colors. Simpler harnesses consist of a belt pack with a number (usually 4, 6, or 8) of formed pockets for pods. They less often feature expansion sleeves (though some do). They are more likely to have the pockets side-facing, or in front of the player, which allows the player to more easily place an empty pod back in its pocket. This is necessary as discarding and retrieving "spent" pods is infeasible on a woodsball field consisting of many acres of dense forest. They usually, but not always, feature a tank pouch, allowing use of a remote line with a "mil-sim" marker for added realism.

Squeegee[edit]

Squeegees are used to clean out debris from the barrel and breach, including dirt/mud, paint and shells from broken paintballs, and residue from the shells' gelatin coating.

One common design is the "rod squeegee", and consists of a hinge-mounted rubber disc on the end of a plastic rod of sufficient length to reach the full length of the barrel. The rubber washer end is inserted sideways into the barrel, pushed to the bottom and subsequently withdrawn with the rubber disc rotated ninety degrees (so that the disc now touches the inner circumference of the barrel and scrapes the paint out). Such designs often place the hinged disk on an inner cable or rod that is manipulated by a trigger at the other end; by pulling the trigger, the disk is forced to rotate into contact with the barrel surface.

For situations where the marker's bolt or barrel can be quickly removed, a "cable squeegee" may be used. A cable squeegee is simply one or more rubber disks mounted perpendicular to a flexible metal cable (usually with a plastic jacket to avoid marring the barrel's surface). The end opposite the disc(s) (the "pull end") is inserted into the rear of the bolt chamber or the chamber side of the barrel, as appropriate, and fed through until the pull end protrudes from the front of the barrel. The squeegee is then pulled through the breech and/or barrel. Some designs incorporate a swab of an absorbent material that picks up anything the disc(s) leave behind. Because they require removal of the bolt or barrel, they are slower to use than a rod squeegee; however, being composed mainly of a flexible cable, they can be easily coiled up into a very compact size.

A "Battle Swab" is used commonly in speedball for extremely quick cleaning; a double-ended stick with soft absorbent fur is simply shoved down the length of the barrel to remove any performance hindering paint or shell. The swab often has a bendable rubber section in the middle so that it can be folded over and stored in a pocket. Battle swabs generally do not clean as thoroughly as other methods, but they can be used in a few seconds where other methods take far longer.

Regardless of the design, as the squeegee is withdrawn, the barrel is perfunctorily cleaned to allow continued use of the marker. This allows the player to reduce the amount of paint or other debris in the marker, which can severely reduce accuracy, without having to remove themselves from play. A more thorough cleaning is recommended once time allows.

Barrel blocks[edit]

A barrel blocker in a Tippmann 98 Custom and by itself above.

A barrel block is a family of safety devices that mechanically obstruct the end of the marker's barrel. They are intended to ensure that, should all other safety devices incorporated in the marker fail or be deactivated, a paintball fired by the marker will not leave its barrel and cause injury. Barrel blocks are usually required by commercial fields, to be used on any marker that is in an area where masks are not required.[10] Neglecting to replace it after leaving a game and entering a safe zone will usually earn a warning. Repeated infractions will often result in ejection from the site. This is done for liability reasons and to lower possibility of unexpected injury to anyone around, especially important when involving eye safety. There are two common types of barrel block:

  • A barrel plug is a plastic or rubber plug that fits snugly into the muzzle end of the marker's barrel, like a wine cork. If made of plastic, they generally incorporate one or more rubber o-rings to provide friction against the barrel surface. These were the original and universal form of barrel block before the introduction of the barrel sock, but are now generally eschewed by players and fields in favor of barrel socks. When using a barrel plug, if a paintball is fired, it will break against the plug in the barrel, lining the barrel with paint and drastically affecting accuracy until the barrel can be squeegeed. Barrel plugs can also be hard to remove and install properly; the high friction that keeps the plug in place when needed also inhibits its intentional removal. The force of the paintball impacting against the plug is often enough to dislodge it; with modern electronic markers having "automatic" and "burst" modes of fire, a single pull of the trigger may be enough to expel the barrel plug from the barrel, which can cause injury in itself, and also exposes those nearby to any further shots leaving the barrel after the plug has been expelled. Barrel plugs, therefore, are not an absolute safety against accidental marker discharge and eye injury.
  • Barrel socks, also commonly called barrel sleeves or barrel condoms, are a newer form of barrel block, and consist of a cloth pouch with an adjustable elastic cord. The pouch is placed over the muzzle of the marker, and the elastic cord is stretched over the feed neck of the marker, and tightened so the pouch is kept securely on the muzzle. If a paintball is fired, it will exit the muzzle and be caught immediately by the pouch. Barrel socks have several advantages over barrel plugs. First, if a paintball is fired, it will generally break in the pouch after leaving the barrel. This generally results in less mess inside the barrel itself (though it is generally still necessary to clean the barrel afterward). Barrel socks are also easy to install and remove; a properly adjusted sock can simply be lifted off by the player against the force of the elastic; it can be completely removed from the marker, or for convenience it can be left hanging by its cord from the feed neck, allowing it to be put back in place at a moment's notice. Most importantly, a barrel sock, with the cord properly tightened, will remain in place over the barrel even after repeated shots, and thus it provides a far more reliable barrier against unintentional shots causing injury. Most fields use a product called a 'Barrel Capp' for their rental equipment.

Other equipment[edit]

Paint grenades[edit]

Although not legal in tournament play, paint grenades may be found in recreational and scenario play. There are two kinds of grenades in use:

  • Non-explosive grenades are generally closer to water balloons in function. One common grenade design consists of a rubber tube sealed securely at one end and more loosely at the other, with an arming pin which, when pulled, loosens that end. The tube is filled with paint under pressure, usually from a syringe. When the grenade is thrown against a hard surface, the loose end of the tube is unsealed, and the paint is sprayed over a wide area, potentially marking players. Another common design consists of a small compressed CO2 tank surrounded by a container of paint.
  • Explosive paint grenades are powered by a small black powder "banger", tipped with a short time-fuse. A small plastic bag of paint is wrapped around this, and the whole assembly is contained in a breakable fibre case (usually segmented to resemble a WWII-era grenade). The end of the fuse protrudes from the top of the casing, and is tipped with a friction-sensitive material similar to the head of a match. This is then covered with a removable cap as a form of "safety catch". To fire the grenade, the cap is removed and its specially roughened outer surface is struck against the fuse, igniting it. The grenade is immediately thrown; the fuse burns down to the tightly packed black powder in two or three seconds and the grenade explodes.

This paint is normally a different color to the fill of the normal paintballs used on that field, as spray from a grenade (by definition) must count as a kill. Under most rules, any mark from a paint grenade is sufficient to count as an elimination.

Grenade launcher[edit]

Paintball grenade launchers are used in recreational and scenario paintball games to launch paint grenades. They are more accurate than throwing a paint grenade, which gives an advantage. Tippmann products such as the X7 are able to have a grenade launcher attached.

Paint mines[edit]

Paint mines are simulated land mines for use in Paintball. Several devices have been designed to spray paint over an area when triggered by passing players. Some of these devices are placed on the ground where, once a person steps on them, forces paint to shoot up and around the target marking the stepper and any nearby teammates.

Smoke grenades[edit]

Smoke grenades, also used in military and law enforcement training, may be allowed in a paintball game.[11] In tournament paintball the use of smoke grenades or any other explosive is strictly prohibited.[12] The grenades create a screen of smoke which can obscure the movement of players and make it more difficult for the opposition to hit them. Some large-scale scenarios use military-issue smoke grenades, but for recreational use, smaller commercial 'smokes' are preferred (due mainly to cost and convenience).

Thunderflashes[edit]

Alongside paint and smoke grenades, many recreational paintball venues sell small thunderflashes for use during games. These are effectively black-powder fireworks which explode with a loud bang, but have a sufficiently small blast to be thrown at opposing players with reasonable safety (provided they do not attempt to pick them up). They are used in the same way as the explosive paint grenades described above.

In practice, thunderflashes have little purpose in a paintball game; their effectiveness at their supposed task of disorienting the enemy is dubious. Nevertheless, they are popular with occasional players, presumably in emulation of the much bigger flashbangs used by the military.

Slingshots[edit]

A variation of paintball uses slingshots instead of markers to propel the paintballs. Because slingshots may shoot faster than 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), sometimes up to &#;m/s (&#;ft/s), most paintball fields don't allow them. A normal game usually requires all players to use slingshots, but some games may allow certain players to use pump-action markers vs. slingshots, such as Cowboys and Indians.

Airow gun[edit]

The Airow gun uses a combination of mechanical and pneumatic power to convert the energy from a compound, or recurve bow. The energy released is generally equivalent to the power generated by a marker. Entire games have been dedicated to the use of Airow Guns, in a fashion similar to that of slingshot paintball.

Paintball bazooka[edit]

One of the fancy paintball anti-tank guns. This one has an effective range of meters.

A "paintball bazooka", or a "paintball rocket launcher" is usually a spud gun styled to resemble some existing AT weapon to specifically "kill", or "take out" paintball tanks. Modified and masked paintball markers serving the same purpose are also used. Most often they fire soft foam rockets or purpose-build marking ammunition, home-made ammo or a cluster of paintballs.

They are predominantly used against vehicles and fortifications only for safety reasons (firing massed paintballs is an exception). Hard home-made projectiles they sometimes fire can potentially injure a player. Replicas of various existing weapons such as RPG, bazooka, panzerfaust or even a PIAT are available.

Paintball artillery[edit]

Paintball artillery ranges from howitzers, through mortars to anti-tank guns. These paintball weapons are usually made of PVC and wood combination, but heavy-metal steel replicas do sometimes appear. Their ammunition ranges from firing a cluster of paintballs, small water balloons, through small pyro-grenades (used in some mortars) to foam rockets.

Foam rockets are the most common ammunition for anti-tank guns. Some AT guns are using soft and fragile marking ammunition instead.

Vehicles[edit]

Main article: Paintball tank

Paintball tanks are a wide variety of vehicles sometimes used in woodsball events to eliminate large numbers of opponents by using protection and superior firepower. They can range from golf carts covered in plywood to real military tanks with real guns converted to fire paintballs. Many paintball sponsors and businesses sometimes have their own paintball tanks which they take to events. Although local paintball parks usually don't make use of vehicles (since the cost of the vehicle and its maintenance can be prohibitive), tournaments and other 'sponsored' events will often feature several.

Mechanised paintball[edit]

As well as infantry-based paintballing, there are also opportunities to take part in more mechanised versions. A number of companies offer experience days featuring an opportunity to drive a "tank" (often actually an armoured personnel carrier) fitted with a paintball "gun".[13] Two such vehicles are then driven around a course, each trying to inflict more paint damage on the other. In a similar vein, Radio-controlled model tanks (typically around scale) can also be fitted with paintball markers and used in a similar way.[14]

Equipment maintenance[edit]

Marker maintenance[edit]

A well-maintained paintball marker will last longer and be more reliable. A paintball marker should be disassembled and checked for problems routinely. For example, it is not uncommon for O-rings to break, or for paintballs to break inside the barrel. The latter problem can be solved temporarily when the player is "in the field" by using a pipe-cleaner-like tool referred to as a squeegee. However, it is important to disassemble the marker after the game and properly clean out any affected parts with the marker company's recommended material/solvent (such as a special cloth, or lubricant) and a paper towel. After cleaning, the marker should be lubricated with commercially available paintball lubricant. Most such lubricants are oils or greases derived from formulae used in pneumatic tools (such as Dow 33) or from gun lubricants. However, lubricants marketed as gun oils should not be used, as most commercial brands contain petroleum solvents to remove powder fouling; these solvents will degrade the synthetic rubber o-rings in a paintball marker. The technician should then ensure that the marker is unloaded before firing several shots to blow out any remaining paint and dry out the interior. Replacements for broken parts should only be sourced from the manufacturer of the marker. Many guns also have elements not designed to be maintained by end users (such as solenoid valves); these should not be disassembled, and if they become faulty they are typically replaced outright.

Mask maintenance[edit]

If the mask's lens are covered in paint, it is important not to simply wipe the paint off, because doing so may cause debris to scratch the lens. The player should leave the field and clean off the lens using water and a towel or a piece of cloth or you can bring your own.

When thermal lenses are used, water or anti-fog treatment should be applied only to the outer lens, as moisture of any kind between the two lenses will ruin the lens system. The interior portion of a thermal lens is also quite soft and should only be wiped clean with a microfiber lens cloth designed specifically for cleaning glasses or goggles without scratching. Products such as Windex or other glass and spectacle cleaners should never be used, as they are designed to be used on glass rather than polycarbonate. Doing so could damage the anti-fog treatments, or compromise the integrity of the lens, putting the player at risk of serious injury.

A convenient method is to use a cheap small spray bottle to spray water onto the lens rather than pouring it on. Another good lens-cleaning agent is a 50–50 mixture of rubbing alcohol and water. After it is mixed it should be put into a spray bottle for use. Use only a clean cloth on the mask; paper towels will scratch the lenses. Anti-fog spray is also available, which coats the lens in a temporary fog-resistant film. Some new lenses will come "pre-treated" by anti-fog, or the lens will say "fog-resistant" — with these lenses, it is advised that anti-fog chemicals are never used as the chemicals can damage the lens beyond further use.

Lenses should be replaced once a year, as their strength is adversely affected by exposure to sunlight.

Paint to barrel matching[edit]

Paintballs generally change shape or size due to differing temperature or humidity, or even due to varying manufacturing processes. If a paintball is larger than the barrel bore, it will at a minimum cause reduced efficiency due to increased friction. Oversized paintballs can also break inside the barrel and coat the inside with paint, causing shot inaccuracy until it is cleaned out. If the paintball is too small for the barrel, air will escape around the paintball when firing, causing a drop in velocity and accuracy. Correcting for this by adjusting the velocity adjuster on the marker could cause a lack of air efficiency.

To check for a good paint-to-barrel match, remove the barrel from the marker and insert a paintball into the barrel. If the paintball simply rolls through the barrel, then the paintball is too small for that barrel. If the paintball does not roll out, then attempt to blow the paintball out of the barrel using your mouth. Ideally, you should be able to easily blow the paintball out, however, if this is not possible and the paintball becomes stuck, then the paintball is too large for the barrel..

Because of the varying sizes of paintballs and barrels, many people opt for an adjustable-bore barrel, commonly called a barrel system or barrel kit. These barrels allow for the user to adjust the internal bore of the barrel to allow for a perfect match for the paint being used. The kits may use pieces called "backs" to adjust bore size, or inserts, which are used in the Scepter barrel kit. Such examples of an adjustable-bore barrel are the Furious Lotus, Sly Dual-Carbon, Powerlyte Scepter, MacDev Matchstick, Smart Parts Freak Barrel, Dye Ultralight, Stiffi Switch Kit, and the Deadlywind Fibur.

HPA cylinder hydrostatic testing[edit]

Since the propellant cylinder used by players are subjected to high pressures and stresses, they must be tested in accordance with the laws of the country the player operates in. In the United States, the United States Department of Transportation requires that cylinders undergo a hydrostatic test at certain intervals, depending on the Special Permit or exemption certificate granted to the manufacturer for the cylinder, and cylinder size.

DOT speciation 3AL Aluminum cylinders have a five-year hydro cycle (meaning they must be hydrostatically re-tested every five years) and an unlimited service life. Cylinders with a DOT Special Permit may require hydrostatic re-testing at different intervals, and have varying service life depending on the Special Permit. It is illegal to fill a cylinder that is outside of its hydro date. cylinder that have been abandoned, damaged, have failed hydrostatic re-testing, have failed a formal inspection, or are out of service life should be properly condemned and removed from service by a trained professional.

References[edit]

  1. ^Conrad, H., Lehmkuhler, F., & Sternemann, C. (). The Carbon dioxide-water interface of gas hydrate formation. The Journal of the American Chemical Society, (2), Retrieved April 2 from Scopus Database
  2. ^Wahjudi, J. (, February 17). Tippmann C3. Retrieved from "Tippmann C-3". Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 16 March
  3. ^Taban, M., & Sears, J.E. (). Ocular finding following trauma from paintball sports. Eye, 22(7), Retrieved April 4 from Scopus Database.
  4. ^Redwood, . (). Choosing the right paintball masks. Wolf Pack Paintball Team, Retrieved from casinoextra.fr Retrieved April 16
  5. ^Khan, Sami Khan (February ). "My parents said 'No'". Paintball Times. Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved 17 April
  6. ^"HydroTec&#;: Ready for Action". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  7. ^"REBALL® USA - Synthetic Reusable Paintless Paintballs REBALL® HOME PAGE". Reball® U.S.A. Retrieved
  8. ^American Paintball League, . (). standard rule book for tournament paintball. Retrieved from "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Retrieved April 16
  9. ^"What in the World is a Drop Forward?". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved 5 May
  10. ^Ewing, Bill (January 13, ). "Indoor paintball site targets the rapid growth of sport". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 17 April
  11. ^Puente, Kelly (25 March ). "Police find spent smoke grenades under overpass". Press Telegram. Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 26 March
  12. ^US Painball League, . (). official rule book. casinoextra.fr, Retrieved from "NPPL Rulebook "(PDF). p.&#; Retrieved 14 April
  13. ^example of a tank paintball experience day (retrieved 18 August )
  14. ^RC tank Combat (retrieved 18 August )
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Paintball marker

Air gun used in the shooting sport of paintball

A paintball marker and related equipment, including ammunition and a protective mask

A paintball marker, also known as a paintball gun, paint gun, or simply marker, is an air gun used in the shooting sport of paintball, and the main piece of paintball equipment. Paintball markers use compressed gas, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed air (HPA), to propel dye-filled gel capsules called paintballs through the barrel and quickly strike a target. The term "marker" is derived from its original use as a tool for forestry personnel to mark trees and ranchers to mark wandering cattle.[1][2]

The muzzle velocity of paintball markers is approximately 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s); most paintball fields restrict speed to &#;ft/s,[3] and small indoor fields may further restrict it down to &#;ft/s.[4] While greater muzzle velocity is possible, it has been ruled unsafe for use on most commercial paintball fields.[5]

Most paintball markers can be disassembled into four main components: the body, loader, barrel, and air tank.

Marker types[edit]

Paintball markers fall into two main categories in terms of mechanism – mechanical and electropneumatic.

Mechanically operated[edit]

Spyder VS2 Paintball Marker

Mechanically operated paintball markers operate using solely mechanical means, and as such do not use electro-pneumatic solenoids controlled by an electronic board to fire.

There five main methods of mechanical operation:

Pump or Bolt Action: the mechanism of the marker must be manually reset in between each shot, similar to pump-action shotguns and bolt-action rifles. Markers of this type are the oldest used in the sport as the first ever game of paintball was played using the bolt-action Nelspot pistol.[6] There are two main patterns of internals upon which most pump- and bolt-action markers operate:

  • Sheridan Valve: Named after the Sheridan series of markers which first employed this design, markers which employ this mechanism have the bolt which loads the paintball is located in a separate tube from the hammer and valve. To cock the mechanism, the bolt is pulled backwards thus opening the breech and loading a paintball. Doing so also pulls the hammer backwards against the main spring, which is then held back by a sear connected to the trigger. The bolt is then pushed forward, which loads the paintball into the barrel and the marker is ready to fire. Pulling the trigger releases the hammer which is propelled forward by the main spring, hitting the valve pin and opening the valve which allows compressed gas to flow from the valve chamber into the barrel chamber thus propelling the loaded paintball forward and out of the barrel. The valve spring then closes the valve with the hammer still resting on the valve pin, after which this cycle must be repeated in order to fire another paintball. Notable examples of markers which operate in this way include the Sheridan K2, the Worr Games Products Sniper and the Chipley Custom Machine S6.
  • Nelson Valve: Named after the Nelson Paint Company whose marker, the Nelspot , first employed this mechanism. In such markers the bolt, hammer and valve are all located in the same tube. To cock the mechanism, the bolt is pulled back against the main spring to allow a paintball to fall into the breach, at which point the sear latches the hammer to the bolt with the compressed main spring in between them. The bolt and attached hammer are then pushed forward to close the breach and load the paintball into the barrel, at which point the sear can be engaged by the trigger and the marker is ready to fire. Pulling the trigger disengages the sear from the bolt, allowing the main spring to propel the hammer rearwards onto the powertube, thus opening the valve and allowing compressed gases to flow from the valve chamber to the barrel through the powertube and bolt which propel the loaded paintball forward. The valve is then closed by the valve spring and the marker is ready to be re-cocked for the next shot. Notable examples of markers which employ this mechanism are the Nelson Nelspot , the CCI Phantom and the Redux.
  • Sterling "Hybrid" Valve: A variation or hybrid of these two methods of operation has been employed in the design of the Arrow Precision Sterling, wherein the bolt is located in a separate tube, as in a Sheridan valved marker, the hammer latches to a carrier similar to how it would to the bolt in a Nelson valve design, and when release it hits a Sheridan styled pin valve. There is significant debate as to what type of operations the Sterling employs, as some consider it to be a hybrid between the two main designs, and others simply consider it to be a stacked-tube Nelson.[7]

Double Action: the trigger mechanism of the marker both fires and resets the firing mechanism, similar to the way a double-action revolver operates. Examples include the Line SI Advantage, the NSG Splatmaster Rapide and the Brass Eagle Barracuda.

Throwback Semi-Auto: The mechanism of the marker is cycled using gasses released by the valve which reset the firing mechanism between each shot, similar to the way some semi-automatic rifles such as the AK operates. The internals of blow-back operated markers can be either inline, with the bolt, valve and hammer all aligned along the same axis such as the Tippman 98, or stacked tube with the bolt in a separate tube from the hammer and valve such as the King-man Spider.

Blow Forward Semi-Auto: The firing mechanism of the marker operates using the gases stored in the valve to cycle the bolt and fire the paintball, after which a spring resets the mechanism for the next shot. Notables examples include the Air-gun Designs Auto-mag, Tippmann X-7 Phenom and the Tiberius Arms T8.

Pneumatically Operated Semi-Auto: a low pressure pneumatic piston controlled by a four-way valve connected to the trigger resets the firing mechanism in between shots, and can be thought of as semi-auto conversions of markers which would otherwise be pump or bolt action. Notable examples include the WGP Autococker, the Palmer's Pursuit Shop Blazer and Typhoon.

Electropneumatically operated[edit]

In electromagnetic designs, the trigger, instead of being mechanically linked to the action of the marker, simply activates an electronic micro-switch (or more recently, a magnetic or optical sensor). That information is passed through control circuitry to a computer-controlled solenoid valve which can open and close very quickly and precisely, allowing gas to move into or out of various pressure chambers in the marker to move the bolt and fire the paintball. This disconnect of the trigger from the action allows electronic trigger pulls to be very short in length and very lightweight (similar to a mouse click; the mechanisms are virtually identical), which dramatically increases rate-of-fire over a fully mechanical design. Solenoid-controlled gas valve designs also allow for reduced weight of internal parts, which both lightens overall weight and reduces the time it takes for the marker to cycle through firing a single paintball.[citation needed]

Each branch favors a different aesthetic and values different aspects of marker design.[citation needed]

Marker body[edit]

A player using a Spyder paintball marker

Most of the marker's functions and aesthetic features are contained in its body, which contains the main components of the firing mechanism: the trigger frame, bolt and valve. Most paintball marker bodies are constructed from aluminium to reduce the marker's weight, and feature custom milling and color anodizing.

External design[edit]

The largest external and ergonomic difference in marker bodies is in the trigger and barrel position. Designers of expensive models attempt to position the trigger frame forward towards the center, or slightly forward of center of the body on speed-ball-oriented markers. This allows the HPA tank to be mounted in a position allowing compactness and balance without requiring any additional modifications that allow the tank to fall down and forwards. Such aftermarket "drop forwards", may create a larger gun profile, which can result in eliminations due to hopper hits. Users often modify less expensive markers to allow a similar mode of operation, albeit by sacrificing a low profile. Although this is not important in games where equipment hits are not counted, in most games, including woodsball games, hopper hits are counted as an elimination. Some markers mount the barrel farther back in the gun body to preserve a compact design, sacrificing the positioning of the trigger forward on the marker body whole paintball gun body should have to clean properly for its better response

Paintball markers are also categorized to a lesser extent by which play style of paintball in which they are intended for use – sporting paintball such as Speedball and Stock Class Paintball, or military simulation style games such as Woodsball.

Trigger frame[edit]

Triggers are the player's primary means of interacting with the marker. The amount of force required to fire the marker, as well as the distance the trigger travels before actuating, called the throw, has a marked effect upon the player's ability to achieve high rates of fire. Many markers, especially higher priced markers, use electronic trigger frames with a variety of sensing methods, including micro-switches, hall effect sensors or break-beam infra-red switches. These triggers have short throws, allowing a high rate of fire. Non-electronic markers sometimes use carefully set pneumatic to achieve a light and short trigger pull.

The trigger frame on non-electronic mechanical markers simply use a series of springs and levers to drop a sear, which propels the hammer in the body forward. On electronic markers, the trigger frame houses the electronics that control the solenoid, as well as features such as ball detection systems. Upgraded circuit boards that add improved features are available.

Bolt and valve assembly[edit]

The bolt and valve assembly is the mechanism which fires the marker. The valve is a mechanical switch that controls whether or not the marker is firing. The bolt directs the flow of air and controls the entry of paintballs into the chamber. The bolt and valve may be separate components, as in many blowback and poppet-based electromagnetic markers. Alternatively, the valve may be built into the bolt, as in spool-valve electromagnetic markers.

A typical paintball gun in a state of complete disassembly (except for trigger workings).

Most modern markers have an open bolt design. When the marker is at rest, the bolt is in the "back" position, and the firing chamber is exposed to the stack of paintballs being fed by the loader. Some markers have closed bolt designs; in the rest position, the bolt, and paintball to be fired, are forward and the feed stack is closed off from the chamber. Closed bolt markers were thought to be more accurate because there is no reciprocating mass when the marker is fired. However, tests have shown that the position of the bolt has little effect on a marker's accuracy.[8]

Bolt and valve in mechanical markers[edit]

The majority of mechanical markers employ a simple blowback design utilizing a poppet valve (also known as a "pin valve"), which is opened when struck by a compression force, provided in the form of a hammer propelled by a spring. This type of marker generally uses a "stacked tube" design, in which the valve and hammer is contained in the lower tube, while the bolt, which is connected to the hammer, is in the upper tube.

When the hammer is pulled backwards the internal spring compresses, exerting exponential pressure against the hammer's continued backwards motion. As the hammer and spring mechanism reaches the far end of its backwards range of travel, it is caught and locked in place by a metal catching device known as the sear. The sear holds the hammer in place, allowing the kinetic energy of the bolt's forward motion to be released whenever the sear is depressed. As the trigger is pulled, the sear becomes depressed and allows the hammer to be propelled forward by the spring. The hammer collides with the valve releasing gas from the external pressurized tank into the internal bolt chamber. The ensuing burst of gas channels out the front end of the bolt, propelling the paintball down the barrel. The rest of the gas pushes backwards on the hammer, pushing both it and the bolt backwards until the mechanism is once again caught on the sear. Once caught, the hammer is ready to repeat the blowback process. In cases where the pressure from the storage vessel drops under the minimum required to complete the action's cycle, the marker may "runaway" firing rapidly without additional trigger pulls required.

Poppet valves are easy to replace and require little maintenance. The downside to this design, however, is its high operating pressure, which leads to a larger recoil and less accuracy.[citation needed] Some markers have a separate firing and recocking sequence, which decreases the recoil caused by the cycling of the hammer.[citation needed] Markers with a hammer have a firing delay when compared to a full electropneumatic.[citation needed]

Some markers are a hybrid of mechanical and electronic features. In these markers, the hammer and spring continues to activate the valve, but the hammer is released by a solenoid in an electronic trigger frame.

Bolt and valve in electropneumatic markers[edit]

Instead of the spring and hammer used to actuate the valve and cycle the bolt assembly in mechanical markers, electropneumatic markers use the rerouting of air to different locations in the marker. This rerouting is controlled by a solenoid that is activated by the trigger. The two types of bolt and valve mechanisms in electropneumatic markers are the poppet-valve and spool-valve.

Poppet-valve-based electropneumatic markers are very similar to mechanical blowback markers. These have a stacked-tube construction, built around a poppet valve, that is opened when struck by a force. Whereas mechanical markers provide that force with a hammer propelled by a spring, the valve in poppet-valve markers are activated by a pneumatic ram. The bolt is connected to the ram. Poppet-valve markers have several disadvantages when compared to spool valves: external moving parts, higher pressure required for poppet to seal, a reciprocating mass and a louder firing signature. However, they are also generally more gas efficient than spool-valve models because the poppet valve opens rapidly and dumps air into the firing chamber faster. Examples of markers that utilize this mechanism are the WDP Angel, Planet Eclipse Ego, Bob Long Intimidator, and Bushmaster.[9]

In Spool-valve-based electropneumatic markers, the bolt also acts as the valve. This eliminates the need for a stacked tube construction; spool valve markers have a more compact profile. Instead of a cycling hammer or ram that strikes a pin valve, the movement of the bolt is controlled by the routing of air into small chambers in front of or behind the bolt. An air reservoir behind the bolt contains the air that is to fire the paintball. When the marker is at rest, air is routed to the front of the bolt to prevent the air in the reservoir from escaping. In an "unbalanced spool valve" design, when the trigger is pulled, that air is exhausted from the marker, allowing the air in the reservoir to push the bolt forwards. In a "balanced spool valve" design, the air in the reservoir cannot force the bolt open; instead, the air from the front of the bolt is rerouted to a small chamber behind the bolt, separate from the reservoir, which then pushes the bolt forward. In either case, the movement of the bolt forward exposes pathways in the bolt or the marker that allow the air in the reservoir behind the bolt to surge forward and fire the paintball. Afterwards, airflow to the front of the bolt is restored, pushing the bolt back into its resting position.

A typical spool valve has at least one O-ring that undergoes a shear and compression duty cycle for every shot, leading to faster wear and less reliability. Additionally, smaller valve openings and longer opening times makes them less gas efficient than their poppet-valve counterparts. Since spool-valve markers have reduced reciprocating mass, and can be operated at lower pressures, they have less recoil and a reduced sound signature. Examples of markers that utilize this mechanism are the Dye Matrix, Smart Parts Shocker, Smart Parts Ion, and the MacDev Clone.[10]

Tuning the bolt and valve system[edit]

In mechanical and poppet-based electropneumatic markers, the valve is usually designed to accommodate a specific operating pressure. Low pressure valves provide quieter operation and increased gas efficiency when tuned properly. However, excessively low pressure can decrease gas efficiency as dramatically as excessively high pressure.

Additionally, the valve must be set to release enough air to fire the paintball. If the valve is not tuned properly, insufficient air to fire the paintball may reach the bolt. This phenomenon, known as "shoot-down", causes fired paintballs to gradually lose range, and can also occur at high rates of fire. Some markers have integral or external chambers, called low-pressure chambers, which hold a large volume of gas behind the valve to prevent shoot-down.

Tuning can also prevent air blowing up the feed tube upon firing, which disrupts the feeding of paintballs into the marker.

Loaders[edit]

Loaders, commonly known as hoppers, hold paintballs for the marker to fire. The main types are gravity feed, agitating and force-feed. Stick feeds are also used to hold paintballs, although they are not considered to be "hoppers".

While agitating and force-feed hoppers facilitate a higher rate of fire, they are subject to battery failure, as well as degradation if they come into contact with moisture. Such hoppers which are not fitted with photoreceptors are prone to problems with ball breaks. When a paintball leaks paint into the hopper from a break in the hopper, the gelatin shells of the paintballs can deteriorate, causing them to stick together as well as jam in the barrel.

Stick feed[edit]

Stick feeds are mainly used on pump and stock-class markers. They consist of simple tubes that hold between ten and twenty paintballs. Stick feeds are usually parallel to the barrel; player must tip the marker to load the next paintball. Some stick feeds are vertical, or at an incline to facilitate gravity feeding, though this contravenes accepted stock-class guidelines.

Gravity feed[edit]

Gravity feed is the simplest and cheapest form of hopper available. Gravity feed hoppers consist of a large container and a feed tube molded into the bottom. Paintballs roll down the sloped sides, through the tube and into the marker. These hoppers have a maximum rate of balls per second[citation needed]. Gravity feed hoppers are very cheap, since they are made of only a shell and a lid, but can become jammed easily as paintballs accumulate above the tube. Rocking the marker (and hopper) occasionally can prevent the paintballs from jamming in the hopper.

This problem is exacerbated when using a fully electronic marker. Most mechanical markers use a blowback system for recocking, or other methods where a large reciprocating mass is involved. This will shake the balls in the hopper slightly, facilitating gravity feed. A marker with both electronically controlled recocking and firing may exhibit no shake whatsoever while operating. Because of this, small packs in the hopper are not broken up and feeding problems result.

There are also loaders that resemble military sights that mimic an ACOG or a Red Dot sight, with 20 paintballs capacity at 10 balls per second. Used normally in milsim events or low capacity (lowcap) events (for e.g.: each player can use a maximum of 50 paintballs).

Agitating[edit]

Agitating hoppers use a propeller, spinning inside the container, to agitate the paintballs. This prevents them from jamming at the feed neck, allowing them to feed more rapidly than gravity feeds. Older tournament-level hoppers are of the agitating type, since the higher rate of fire requires a reliable hopper.

There are two types of agitating hoppers: those with sensors – called "eyes" – and those without. The eyes consist of a LED (light emitting diode) and a photodetector, typically a phototransistor or photodiode, inside the neck or tube of the hopper, to detect the presence of a ball. In a hopper, the eyes detect when a ball is absent, causing it to turn. Agitating hoppers without eyes will quickly deplete batteries and may bend or dent paintballs, causing a short, less air efficient, skew shot. Agitating hoppers with eyes will only spin in the absence of a ball, preventing damage and prolonging battery life.

A third type of agitating hopper, the Cyclone Feed System manufactured by Tippmann, re-routes gas to agitate the feeding mechanism. It does not need batteries to operate.

Force-feed[edit]

Force-feed hoppers use an impeller to capture paintballs and force them into the marker. The impeller is either spring-loaded or powered by a belt system, allowing it to maintain constant pressure on the stack of paintballs in the feed tube. This allows force-feed hoppers to feed paintballs at a rate exceeding 50 balls per second, since the mechanism does not rely on gravity. Force-feed hoppers are the dominant type used in tournaments, being the only type of loader capable of maintaining the high rate of fire of electropneumatic markers.

Some markers use force-fed loaders shaped as firearms magazines. These are preferred when a low profile is required, as in woodsball sniper positions. Even more unusual are fully contained magazines, incorporating both a source of propellant gas and force-fed paintballs.

The newest type of force feed hoppers communicate wirelessly with the marker's electronics using radio frequency. This allows the hopper to begin feeding paintballs before the pneumatic system of the marker has begun cycling the next shot. This system almost totally eliminates mis-feeds and can increase the speed of the loader and the battery life because the loader is only in operation when the marker is preparing to fire.

Propellant system[edit]

Main article: Paintball equipment §&#;Propellants

The tank holds compressed gas, which is used to propel the paintballs through the marker barrel. The tank is usually filled with carbon dioxide or compressed air. High Pressure Air (HPA) is also known as "nitrogen", as air is 78% nitrogen, or because these systems can be filled with industrial nitrogen. Due to the instabilities of carbon dioxide, HPA tanks are required for consistent velocity. Other propulsion methods include the combustion of small quantities of propane or electromechanically operated spring-plunger combinations similar to that used in an airsoft gun.

Carbon dioxide[edit]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a propellant used in paintball, especially in inexpensive markers. It is usually available in a 12&#;gram powerlet, mainly used in stock paintball and in paintball pistols, or a tank. The capacity of a carbon dioxide tank is measured in ounces of liquid and it is filled with liquid CO2, at room temperatures the vapour pressure is about 5, kilopascals (&#;psi).

The CO2 liquid must vaporize into a gas before it can be used. This causes problems such as inconsistent velocity. Cold weather can cause problems with this system, reducing the vapour pressure and increasing the chance for liquefied gas to be drawn into the marker. The low-temperature liquid can damage the internal mechanisms. Anti-siphon tanks have a tube inside the cylinder, which is bent to prevent liquid carbon dioxide from being drawn into the gun.

On the other hand, a number of paintguns were designed with specific valves to operate on liquid CO2, including some early Tippmann models and the Mega-Z from Montneel – thus solving the problem caused by phase changes.[11] Siphon equipped CO2 tanks are easily identified by the clunking sound their weight makes when the tank is tipped.

After many years of use, Carbon dioxide has almost been universally replaced with High Pressure Air systems (see below)

High-pressure air[edit]

High-pressure air, compressed air or nitrogen, is stored in the tank at a very high pressure, typically 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi). Output is controlled with an attached regulator, regulating the pressure between 1,&#;kPa (&#;psi) and 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi), depending on the type of tank. The advantage of using regulated HPA over carbon dioxide (CO2) is pressure consistency and temperature stability where CO2 reacts to temperature changes causing inaccuracy and freezing during heavy use. The most popular tank size is 1, cubic centimetres (67&#;cu&#;in) at 31,&#;kPa (4,&#;psi) providing – shots.

HPA tanks are more expensive because they must accommodate very high pressures. They are manufactured as steel, aluminium or wrapped carbon fiber tanks, the latter being the most expensive and most lightweight. Most players with electronic markers use HPA because if CO2 is used, the marker's electronic Solenoid valve can be damaged if liquid CO2 enters it.

Users are warned not put any type of lubricant in the 'fill nipple' port of a HPA tank, as petroleum may burn when subjected to highly compressed air, causing an explosion, like in a diesel engine.

Propane[edit]

A far less common propellant is propane, featured only in the Tippmann C3. Rather than simply releasing gas as in high-pressure air and CO2 markers, the propane is ignited in a combustion chamber, increasing pressure and opening a valve that lets the expanding gas propel the paintball. There are a number of advantages, mainly shots per tank, ranging from 30, to 50, shots (depending on the size of the tank) as opposed to the typical to shots that are standard with High Pressure Air or CO2 tanks. Another advantage includes availability, as propane is readily available in many stores, whereas CO2 and High Pressure Air are most commonly filled from compressors or pre-filled tanks, which are less common. It can also be considered safer too, because a typical high-pressure air tank holds air at 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi), and a CO2 tank at 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi), but propane is stored at 2,&#;kPa (&#;psi).

However, propane produces heat, which (when firing for an extended period at high rates of fire) can cause burns if improperly handled. It can also be a fire hazard: the Tippmann C3 releases small amounts of flames from the vents in the combustion chamber and out of the barrel when firing. If a marker develops a leak from improper maintenance, it could cause a fire.

Gas regulation[edit]

Marker systems have a variety of regulator configurations, ranging from completely unregulated to high-end systems using four regulators, some with multiple stages.

The regulator system affects both the accuracy and the firing velocity. Carbon dioxide regulators must also prevent liquid gas from entering the marker and expanding, causing a dangerous surge in velocity. Regulators used with carbon dioxide often sacrifice throughput and accuracy to ensure the marker operates safely. HPA-only regulators tend to have an extremely high throughput and are designed to ensure uniform pressure between shots to ensure marker accuracy at high rates of fire.

Tournament markers usually are equipped with two regulators, and another on the tank, each with a specific function. The tank regulator decreases the pressure of air from 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi) to 4,–5,&#;kPa (–&#;psi). A second regulator is used to further reduce this pressure to near the firing pressure. This reduction allows for greater consistency. The air is then supplied to a regulator on the marker body, where the final output pressure is selected. This can be between 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi) for entirely unregulated carbon dioxide markers to approximately 1,&#;kPa (&#;psi) for extremely low pressure markers. After the firing pressure is decided, tournament-oriented markers use another regulator to supply gas to a separate pneumatic system, to power any other functions, such as bolt movement. This is an extremely low volume, extremely low pressure regulator, usually under &#;kPa (&#;psi).

Barrels[edit]

The marker's barrel directs the paintball and controls the release of the gas pocket behind it. Several different bore sizes are made, to fit different sizes of paintball, and there are many lengths and styles. Most modern paintball markers have barrels that screw into the front receiver. Older types slide the barrel on and screw it in place. Barrel threading must be matched to that of the marker. Common threads are: Angel, Autococker, Impulse/Ion, Shocker, Spyder, A-5, and 98 Custom.

Barrels are manufactured in three basic configurations: one piece, two piece and three piece. A barrel with interchangeable bores, with either two or three piece, is called a barrel system, rather than a two-piece or three-piece barrel. This prevents confusion, as many two-piece barrel systems do not use an interchangeable bore system.

One piece barrels are machined from a single piece of material, usually aluminium, but stainless steel has historically been popular. Paintballs can range from to caliber (–&#;mm), and barrels are made to match these diameters. Some one piece barrels have a stepped bore that increases from their rated bore size to around caliber (&#;mm) after 8 inches (&#;mm). One-piece barrels are generally less expensive to produce and therefore to purchase, but if a different bore size is desired (for a closer fit to the size of a given brand or batch of paintballs) an entirely new barrel is required. The use of a single material for the entire barrel means that disadvantages of certain materials, such as durability (aluminum) or weight (stainless steel), cannot be mitigated.

Two piece barrels consist of a front and back. The back attaches to the marker and is machined with a specified bore between and caliber (–&#;mm). The front makes up the rest of the length and contains the porting. Fronts usually have a larger bore than the back. The design of a two-piece barrel allows for the use of more than one back with a front, to change the effective bore size of the barrel without changing the entire barrel. It also allows for the back to be made of a different material, or be a different color, than the front, allowing aesthetic and performance customizations.

Three-piece barrels have a single back. A series of inserts, or sleeves, with differing bores are inserted into the back. The front is attached to keep the sleeve in place. Sleeves are generally offered in either aluminium or stainless steel. Aluminium sleeves are light but can be dented or scratched easily; stainless steel versions are more resilient but carry a weight penalty. The user needs only one set of sleeves and a back for each marker. Front sections, which adjust the length of the barrel, can be interchanged. This type offers the widest selection of barrel diameters, usually (), (), (), (), and up to caliber (&#;mm).

Length[edit]

Typical barrels are between 76&#;mm (&#;in) and &#;mm (21&#;in) long, although custom barrels may be up to &#;mm (36&#;in) long. Longer barrels are usually quieter than shorter barrels, allowing excess gas to escape slowly. Players usually choose a barrel length between &#;mm (12&#;in) and &#;mm (16&#;in), as a compromise between accuracy, range, and portability. Many players favor longer barrels as they permit them to push aside the large inflatable bunkers commonly used in paintball tournaments while still staying behind cover.

Most barrels are ported or vented, which means that holes are drilled into the front of the barrel allowing the propellant to dissipate slowly, making the marker quieter. Porting in the first &#;mm (&#;in) of the barrel length decreases a marker's gas efficiency. For example, if a millimetre (16&#;in) barrel has large porting that starts &#;mm (&#;in) past the threads, the ball must travel the other millimetres (&#;in) largely on its own momentum, losing speed (due to friction) rather than gaining more speed from continued air pressure. Compensating for that requires a larger burst of gas, decreasing efficiency. Porting too early can also dramatically increase noise, as the gas is still under a significant amount of pressure.

Bore[edit]

The bore is the interior diameter of the barrel. The bore must properly match the type of paint being fired, the most critical aspect of a barrel. A mismatched selection will result in velocity variations, which causes difficulty in maintaining a close match to field velocity limits and in extreme cases it can affect accuracy. Two and three-piece barrels let the barrel bore be matched to the paint diameter without needing new barrels. Correct matching is especially important in closed-bolt markers that lack ball detents because the ball will roll down, and potentially out of, the barrel. This results in either a dry fire in the event that the ball fell out of the barrel, or a lower velocity shot.

It has been proven that matching bore to paintball size is less efficient. Underboring (barrel is bored smaller than paint diameter) results in good shot consistency and efficiency. Overboring (barrel is bored bigger than paint diameter) results in good shot consistency but worse efficiency. Paint to barrel matching results in no increase in shot consistency or efficiency.[12]

Firing and trigger modes[edit]

Since the advent of semi-automatic markers in the early s, both insurance and competitive rules have specified that markers must be semi-automatic only; only one paintball may be fired per trigger pull. While this was a perfectly clear definition when markers were all based on mechanical and pneumatic designs, the introduction of electronically controlled markers in the late s meant that technology had allowed for easy circumvention of this rule. Electronic markers are often controlled by a programmable microcontroller, on which any software might be installed. For example, software may allow the marker to fire more than once per trigger pull, called shot ramping.

Velocity ramping is an electronic firing mode where a consistent, fully automatic firing rate will be triggered as long as the player maintains a low rate of trigger pulls per second.

Pump action[edit]

Pump action markers must be manually re-cocked after every shot, much like a pump action shotgun.

Some pump action paintball markers such as the Sterling and many Nelson-based markers like the PMI Tracer and CCI Phantom offer slam-fire action, also known as an auto-trigger, which occurs when the trigger is squeezed and the marker fires with every ensuing recocking of the marker via the pump.[13]

Semi-automatic[edit]

A paintball marker that reloads itself with the next load from the magazine after one shot is called semi-automatic. Semi-automatic markers use a variety of designs to automatically cycle a bolt and load a new paintball into the chamber with each trigger pull. This frees the player from manually pumping the marker, allowing him or her to increase the rate-of-fire. Semi-automatic markers may have a mechanical trigger or an electronic trigger frames. An electronic trigger frame typically has a lighter trigger pull and less space between the trigger and the pressure point, allowing the player to shoot at higher rates of fire. Such frames are commonly available as upgrades to fully mechanical markers, or are integrated into the design of electropneumatic markers.

With the popularity of electronic trigger frames allowing players with such frames to achieve very high rates of fire, tournament leagues began placing limits on the maximum rate of fire of electronic markers used in their events. Manufacturers also often place their own limit on the maximum rate of fire the marker will support, to ensure reliable cycling. Such limits are called caps; tournament caps generally range from 12 to 15 balls per second, while mechanical caps vary according to the design of the marker and the firmware used. If such a cap is enforced, the marker will prevent a ball being fired less than a certain time after the last one, the time delay resulting in the desired maximum rate of fire. A trigger pull occurring before this time has elapsed will be "queued", and the marker will fire again after the delay, but most markers will limit the number of shots that can be "queued" to avoid the marker firing a number of shots after the trigger was last pulled, a so-called "runaway marker".

Fully automatic[edit]

Fully automatic markers fire continually when the trigger is pressed. The Tippmann SMG 60 was the first fully automatic paintball marker. Most electropneumatic paintball guns feature this mode. The fully automatic mode can be added to any electropneumatic marker by installing a customized logic board, or buying a completely new electronic trigger frame.

Similarly, markers can be equipped with burst modes. Ranging from between three and nine shot bursts, these modes allow the player to take accurate shots with a quick pull of the trigger, using more than one ball to increase their chances of hitting the target. In burst mode, the rate of fire can equal that of the fully automatic mode, which is useful in close range situations.

Ramping[edit]

Ramping is a feature in some electronic markers that automatically changes the mode of fire from semi-automatic to fully automatic under certain conditions;[14] normally upon a certain number of rapid shots being fired or a minimum rate of fire achieved and sustained. Ramping can be difficult to detect because ramping modes may be inconsistently used. Ramping modes can further be hidden in the software, ensuring that a marker will fire in a legal, semi-auto mode when being tested, but an illegal ramping mode may be engaged by the player under certain conditions.

Some leagues allow a specific ramping mode to prevent problems with enforcement, and to provide a more level playing field with regard to technical skill and marker quality (and price). The rule specifies a minimum time between shots resulting in a maximum rate of fire, and that a certain number of semi-automatic shots must be fired before ramping may engage. With players consistently using a standard ramping mode, players using a different mode are more easily detected.

The rate of fire is enforced by a "PACT" timer, a standard firearms timing device that measures the time between shots. The following are common league-specific ramping modes, preset in the marker's firmware:

  • PSP Ramping – Ramping begins after 3 shots; the player must maintain at least one pull per second to achieve/maintain ramping. The marker may then fire up to (and no more than) three balls per trigger pull in a "burst" fashion. Rate of fire cannot exceed balls per second (as of ), even if the player pulls the trigger 5 times per second or faster.
  • NXL Ramping – Ramping begins after three shots; the player needs only to hold down the trigger to maintain fully automatic fire. Rate of fire cannot exceed 15&#;balls per second. Firing must cease immediately upon the trigger being released.
  • Millennium Ramping – Ramping begins after six trigger pulls at a minimum rate of pulls per second; the player must maintain trigger pulls per second to maintain ramping. Rate of fire cannot exceed balls per second. When the player ceases to pull the trigger during ramping, no more than one extra ball may be fired after the last pull.

Safety[edit]

When paintballs hit an object at high speed they have the potential to cause damage; a paintball colliding with human skin, even protected by cloth, may cause bruising or further tissue damage. However, the damage depends on the paintball's velocity, distance, its impact angle, whether it breaks, and which part of the body it hits. Because of the potential for serious soft tissue damage, paintball players must wear a quality paintball mask to protect their eyes, mouth, and ears when barrel blocking devices are not preventing paintball markers from firing. A good paintball mask is one which has an anti-fog, dual-pane, scratch less, and UV coated lens. Before making a buying decision, the mask must be checked for its glasses comparability, internal space, and ventilation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"SPLAT!; South Sound Plays Host to Some of the Best in the World of Paintball". News Tribune, The. Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved September 15,
  2. ^Gaines, Charles (December 6, ). "Who Thought This Was A Good Idea?". CNN. Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved 5 March
  3. ^paintball, David Muhlestein David Muhlestein is a; Mids, Woodsball Enthusiast Who Has Been Playing Since the; Equipment, Has Extensive Knowledge of Paintball. "Exactly How Fast Does a Paintball Gun Fire?". LiveAbout. Retrieved
  4. ^"Paintball Safety Rules". LVL UP Sports Paintball Park. Retrieved
  5. ^"EMR PAINTBALL PARK &#; Scenario Paintball &#; Recball &#; Tournament Paintball &#; Castle Conquest &#; Paintball Safety". casinoextra.fr Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved
  6. ^"About Us &#; Nelson Paintball".
  7. ^casinoextra.fr
  8. ^"Where's the Bolt?". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  9. ^Maker Classification – Markers Using a Hammer, at casinoextra.fr
  10. ^Marker Classification – Marker Without a Hammer, at casinoextra.fr
  11. ^"WARPIG - World And Regional Paintball Information Guide: antisiphon". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  12. ^Barrel Test done by PunkWorksPaintball casinoextra.fr?v=rDxWqM6WS9Q
  13. ^"Sterling STP Bronze manual"(PDF). Retrieved
  14. ^casinoextra.fr

External links[edit]

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

Introduction: 6 Player Paintball Gun and Mask Rack

I play for the scenario paintball team Pub Crawling. We have more than 20 members on the team and over the years we have come up with ideas to make keeping the staging area better organized. One of the items we get asked about a lot is the paintball gun and mask rack. We are currently on version 5 or 6 of the rack and have made many improvements along the way.

Requirements for the rack would have to be: holds as much gear as possible, hold the gear neatly and safely, break down for travel into as small a size as possible, easy to put back together and be light for travel purposes. Each rack is designed to fit on 1/2 of a 6 foot table so we can put 12 guns and masks per table. We currently have four of these racks for all the players on the team to use. 

This version of the rack we will be building was built and designed by Chuck "Chucky Cheese"  Canesi. I just reverse engineered it and posted it here.

You can find out more about the paintball team Pub Crawling at casinoextra.fr

Step 1: Material List

6 Player Paintball Gun Rack
32 1/2 inches Tall
16 3/4 inches deep
36 inches wide

Material List
3/4 inch schedule 40 pvc pipe Approximately 24 feet
(8) T connectors
(6) 90 degree elbows
(3) Crosses
(6) pipe Caps
(6) 9/16 nuts
(6) Barrel Holders
(6) Tank holders
(12) 3/4 inch screws
60 inches of weather stripping
(1) 5/8 inch dowel rod 30 inches long


Step 2: Building the Base (tank Holder)

Lets start with the piece that holds the tanks. 
Cut 1st piece of PVC pipe 32 3/8 inches
Cut 3/4 inch Dowel Rod to 30 inches
You may have to sand the dowel rod so you can insert it into the PVC pipe we just cut.
As you can see in the picture, the top of the dowel was sanded flat where the screws for the tank holder would attach.
Insert the Dowel into the 32 3/8 long piece of PVC pipe, We centered it with about an inch of space in either end. Really i think the dowel and the pipe could be the same
length but we used a piece we had laying around.

Next We will attach the Tank holders to the casinoextra.fr piece started off as a flat piece of metal that we bent to shape.

Drill Two holes into the Tank holders near the bottom where it will attach to the PVC. You can see originally we tried with one center hole but it spun too much so we went with two holes on the side. We counter sunk the screw heads into the metal tank holders.
We used (12) 3/4 inch wood screws to attach all of the tank holders to the PVC and dowel rod.

Spacing for the tank Holders. Measured from the end of the pipe to the bottom center of the first holder. 2 1/16, 7 9/16, 13 1/2, 19 3/16, 24 15/16, 30 3/4 inches.
Use the (12) 3/4 inch wood screws to secure the tank holder into place. Then cut (2) 5 inch pieces of weather stripping per tank holder and attach both to each one. We used the kind of weather stripping with adhesive tape backing to make it easy.  

Step 3: Building the Base (side Pieces)

Two Sides of the base:
You will need (4) 6 1/2 inch pieces Of PVC pipe. 
Between 2 of the pipes attach a T connector and to the ends of the pipes (2) of the 90 degree elbows. 
Repeat process to build other side.  

Step 4: Building the Base (gun Barrel Holder)

You will need (6) T connectors, (2) 1 7/8 pieces of pvc pipe, (5) pieces of 4 inch pvc pipe.

Starting with a 1 7/8 pieces of pipe connect a T connector then a 4 inch piece of pipe and keep going until you finally finish with the last piece of  1 7/8 pipe connecting to the last T connector.  In the pictures you see then upright barrel holder pieces in there but they are glued in and I couldn't take them out for the picture. I will describe how to make those in the next section. 

Now you should have all of the pieces to put together to make the base. 



Step 5: Building the Gun Barrel Holders

For the Barrel holders you will need (6) 8 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe. They will fit into the T connectors.

Take the (6) PVC pipe caps and drill a 3/8 inch hole into the Top center of the cap.

For the barrel holder itself this was a metal ring piece that we cut in 1/2 and then dipped in liquid plastic.
Insert the threaded piece of the U shaped barrel holder into the cap and attach with the 9/16 nuts.
Put the completed Caps onto the PVC pipe.  Then the other end of the pipe into the T connector in the back base piece. 

In the photo section you can also see an alternate barrel holder I used for one since Lowes and Home Depot near me didn't have the part used on the other rack. 

Step 6: Two Uprights for the Mask Holder

(2) 29 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe.
(2) 90 degree elbows

Put one of the elbows onto a pvc pipe and the other end onto the T connector on the base. 
Repeat for other side. 

Step 7: Building the Mask Holder Section.

(8) 5 5/8 inch pieces of PVC pipe
(2) 8 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe.
(4) Cross connectors

Assemble (2) of the 5 5/8 pieces of PVC pipe into the 90 degree elbows from the uprights.
Attach (2) of the crosses to those end pieces.
Attact the (2) 8 1/2 inch pieces of pipe to the Crosses and attach the last Cross pieces in the center of those.
Attach the (6) 5 5/8 pieces of PVC pipes to the crosses to make the mask holders.

You should now have a fully assembled 6 person Paintball gun rack and mask holder.  

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Step 8: Customize

In the pictures below you can see another rack I made for our friends on the PA Brew Crew. Their colors are Black and Red so I painted this one up a bit for them. Since I couldn't find the same Barrel holder and Tank holder brackets I used some alternate parts. (see pics in the other steps) and coated them with Perfomix's Plasti Dip.  I used Vaspar Plastic spray paint on the PVC pipe.

The question came up about linking this rack with another. I think if you replaced the two bottom 90 degree elbows on one side  with a 4 way connector (like we used in the top center if the rack) you should be able to connect another rack to this with two small straight pieces of pipe. 

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Standard Wall Mount for a Paintball Gun, Black (Made in The USA)

Showcase your collection of paint ball guns in your home with this low profile mount. This two-piece assembly mount is a perfect solution to display your gun collection on the wall in an organized fashion. Specially made to fit a standard paintball gun, the firearm rests on mounting posts that are covered with protective caps to prevent scratching. The mount provides a sturdy foundation for your gun, keeping it securely positioned. Please contact me if you have specific measurement requirements. Kirk Rogers is an American inventor who designs practical and attractive products for the enhancement of people’s living spaces. Kirk Rogers has been an Amazon Top Seller since with over inventions to his name. Search KR Ideas on Amazon for other ingenious storage, display and furniture products. All KR Ideas products are original and fabricated in the U.S.A. If you have a specific problem that needs a design solution, contact KR Ideas and have them create a product tailored to your needs.

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

Standard Wall Mount for a Paintball Gun, Black (Made in The USA)

Showcase your collection of paint ball guns in your home with this low profile mount. This two-piece assembly mount is a perfect solution to display your gun collection on the wall in an organized fashion. Specially made to fit a standard paintball gun, the firearm rests on mounting posts that are covered with protective caps to prevent scratching. The mount provides a sturdy foundation for your gun, keeping it securely positioned. Please contact me if you have specific measurement requirements. Kirk Rogers is an American inventor who designs practical and attractive products for the enhancement of people’s living spaces. Kirk Rogers has been an Amazon Top Seller since with over inventions to his name. Search KR Ideas on Amazon for other ingenious storage, display and furniture products. All KR Ideas products are original and fabricated in the U.S.A. If you have a specific problem that needs a design solution, contact Paintball gun stand measurements Ideas and have them create a product tailored to your needs.

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Paintball equipment

Paintball is an equipment-intensive sport and in order to safely conduct a game, every player requires a marker with propellant to fire the paint, a mask to protect the eyes and face, paintballs, and a loader to hold them. To ensure safety off the playing field, a barrel sock or plug for the marker is also compulsory.

Depending on type of play, additional equipment can include gloves, a pack designed to comfortably carry pods containing extra paintballs, and a squeegee or swab for cleaning out the barrel in case a paintball breaks. Players may also elect to wear padding or armor in order to reduce the impact of incoming paintballs.

Markers[edit]

Main article: Paintball marker

A paintball marker is the primary piece of equipment used in paintball to tag an opposing player. An expanding gas (usually carbon dioxide or high-pressure air) forces a paintball through the barrel at a muzzle velocity of approximately 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). This velocity is sufficient for most paintballs to break upon impact at a distance, but not so fast as to cause tissue damage beyond mild bruising, paintball gun stand measurements. Nearly every commercial field has, and strictly enforces, a rule limiting the muzzle velocity of a paintball at or below 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). Speeds above are typically needed to ensure the paintball breaks on impact; the field limit is thus usually somewhere in between, often fps. The technology used to design and build paintball markers has advanced over time, beginning with the original "Nel-Spot" bolt-action pistols, progressing to pump-action markers, then to semi-automatic mechanical markers, and finally culminating in the electropneumatic paintball marker.

In mechanical designs, the trigger manipulates a sear, paintball gun stand measurements, which paintball gun stand measurements holding a hammer, ram, or sealed gas chamber in its resting state. Pulling the trigger releases the sear, allowing the marker's action to cycle. There are a variety of mechanical designs, the most common being the "blow-back" marker, which utilizes paintball gun stand measurements spring-loaded ram released by the sear to open a pin valve; the pressurized gas released through the valve is directed through the bolt to fire the marker, and also andy valley gymnastics website the ram back where it is caught again by the sear, resetting the action for the next shot. There are other systems that saw success in earlier days of the sport, such as blow-forward (AGD Automag) and pneumatically actuated recocking (WorrGames Autococker); elements of these designs were carried forward into modern electropneumatic designs but the original examples of these mechanisms are rarely seen today.

In electropneumatic designs, the trigger, instead of being mechanically linked to the action of the marker, simply activates an electronic microswitch (or more recently, a magnetic or optical sensor). That information is passed through control circuitry to a computer-controlled solenoid valve which can open and close very quickly and precisely, allowing gas to move into or out of various pressure chambers in the marker to move the bolt and fire the paintball. This disconnect of the trigger from the action allows electronic trigger pulls to be very short in length and very lightweight (similar to a mouse click; the mechanisms are virtually identical), which dramatically increases rate-of-fire over a fully mechanical design. Solenoid-controlled gas valve designs also allow for reduced weight of internal parts, which both lightens overall weight and reduces the time it takes for the marker to argyle lacrosse mesh through firing a single paintball.

In fully electropneumatic designs, there are two primary mechanism types:

  • The "poppet valve" (or simply "poppet") design functions similarly to a mechanical blowback or Autococker-style marker; when the trigger is pulled, low-pressure air from the solenoid brings the bolt forward to chamber the paintball and also sends a connected, weighted ram into a pin valve, which opens to allow high-pressure air into the chamber, launching the ball. Then, either additional air from the solenoid in a "two-way" design, or a spring in a "FASOR" (Forward Air, Spring-Operated Return) design, returns the bolt and ram to the open position. Another paintball drops into the open chamber and the action is ready to fire again. Poppets are typically valued for high gas efficiency, paintball gun stand measurements, as the low-pressure system to move the ram and the limited time the high-pressure valve is open saves gas compared to most competing designs. However, the nature of the mechanism produces very loud "pops" when the marker is fired, and the movement of the ram and bolt and the sudden high-pressure release of air can increase recoil, affecting accuracy during rapid fire. They are also more mechanically complex; most designs require two regulators, paintball gun stand measurements, one to adjust the "high-pressure" air launching the ball, and a second one to further lower the pressure to operate the ram.
  • The "spool valve" ("spoolie") typically uses the bolt itself paintball gun stand measurements hold air in a filling chamber. This high-pressure air is either self-balancing so there is no net force to open the bolt (a "balanced" spool valve), or is kept in check by additional air from the solenoid pushing backward on the bolt (an "unbalanced" or "dump-valve" spool). When the trigger is pulled, the solenoid of a balanced system pushes the bolt forward, paintball gun stand measurements, or in a dump-valve vents the air from the forward pressure chamber. As the bolt moves forward, it seals off the inlet allowing high-pressure gas into the filling chamber, and then releases the stored charge of air through the bolt into the main chamber to launch the ball. The solenoid then resets the bolt by allowing air to re-enter the forward chamber and pushing the bolt backward to re-seal the filling chamber and open the inlet. Spool valves are typically valued for their quieter and smoother operation, and their reduced mechanical complexity (often the only major moving part is the bolt), but are often less gas-efficient than poppet valves due to the large charge of air behind the bolt and the single operating pressure used both to move the bolt and launch the ball.

In addition to fully electropneumatic marker designs, electronic trigger frames, with a solenoid-controlled sear, can be fit to most mechanical "blow-back" designs, such as the Kingman Spyder line of entry-level markers. These allow the high rates of fire seen in full electropneumatic designs at a very low cost compared to higher-level markers; however they typically have both the higher recoil of poppets (even worse, typically, as the designs use a traditional high-mass hammer driven forward by a spring) and relatively low gas efficiency due to a single operating pressure.

Contrasting this move toward high rates of fire, there is also a strong following of stock-class paintball games, where players use older, purely mechanical pump-action marker designs to purposefully limit rate of fire. Pump markers require the player to recock the marker, using a pump handle similar to a pump-action shotgun, before each shot. Stock-class games and competitions require the use of pump markers, and also often limit the types and capacities of propellant sources and loading mechanisms that players may use. With the decreased rate of fire and carrying capacity, increased need for reloads of both paintballs and propellant, and the generally quieter report of these markers, stock-class play places more emphasis on accuracy, stealth, and tactics.

Propellants[edit]

Paintball markers are powered by the expansion of gas stored in a compressed gas bottle. The two most common forms of compressed gas are carbon dioxide and high-pressure air (HPA).

Carbon dioxide[edit]

Because CO2 becomes a liquid when compressed, it must expand to a gas in order to be used by most paintball markers, although several older models actually require liquid CO2 in order for proper operation.[1] This expansion is not adiabatic and requires energy, causing the tank to cool as heat is used to expand the liquid CO2 into gas. Eventually, under sustained fire, and especially in cold weather, the tank can become so cold that ice crystals form on it. If the CO2 bottle does not have an anti-siphon tube fitted, or is shaken while firing, the liquid CO2 may enter the marker. The liquid CO2 then passes through the marker instead of the tank, evaporating and causing the marker to freeze. This results in large clouds of CO2 vapor ejected from the marker upon firing, caused by the liquid CO2 evaporating in/around the barrel. This is known as "drawing liquid". This can cause damage to internal seals and O-Rings, and can "freeze" some markers, putting it out of commission for some time while it warms back up. Simple operation designs such as in-line blow-back (most Tippmanns), guns designed before HPA was more widely used, or guns using gram CO2 powerlets are usually not affected by this problem, but it can still cause damage to the marker over time. For this particular reason, most high-end markers recommend that you use HPA. Technically, CO2 and HPA can propel the paintball, but when high rates of fire are attained, liquid is sucked into the marker which can damage or even destroy electrical components inside the marker such as the solenoid. Never leave a CO2 container in sunlight, as the heat will cause paintball gun stand measurements gas to expand to a dangerous level. The tanks include safety valves in their construction, but there is no need to use them or take unnecessary risks.

With normal back-bottle setups (or, air systems utilizing a horizontal air source adapter, more commonly called an ASA), the less dense gaseous CO2 will rise to the top half of the tank. Normally, ASAs are angled slightly so the gaseous CO2 is always available at the valve of the tank. Special devices known as anti-siphon tubes extend the mouth of the valve, and provide only CO2 from the top part of the tank.

During rapid successions of shots, gaseous CO2 is used up. Liquid CO2 will take some time to evaporate and rebuild the internal pressure. This process causes potentially large changes in velocity and therefore, in accuracy and range.

High-pressure air or N2[edit]

A Pure Energy N2tank with a remote line attached

The newer high-pressure air (HPA) paintball markers use compressed air or nitrogen (N2) for propulsion, to attempt to offset issues with other types of propellants such as CO
2. Due to nitrogen's low critical point, when pure nitrogen or air (which is 78% nitrogen) is compressed, it remains in gaseous form unless the temperature goes well below −&#;°C (−&#;°F). When it expands, the tank also cools due to the Joule-Thomson effect, but at a far lower rate than liquid CO
2 because it does not have to phase-change from liquid to gas. The lack of vaporization reduces the variation in output gas pressure associated with rapid successions of firing cycles, improving accuracy and reducing the chance of "freeze-up" malfunctions.

However, because the propellant gas is stored at higher pressures (up to 34&#;MPa or 4,&#;psi) while liquid CO2 is stored at around 8&#;MPa or 1,&#;psi, HPA tanks need to be built to higher pressure ratings and are thus heavier and more expensive, paintball gun stand measurements. The tanks themselves can either be filled with pure N2 or air (which is 78% N2). Tanks smaller than &#;L (67&#;cu&#;in) may not last heated matches, while larger tanks are cumbersome and require mounting options that create a larger marker profile.

There are two different kinds of HPA tanks in paintball. There are aluminium tanks which are preferred by younger players because while aluminium tanks are heavy and only hold about 21&#;MPa (3,&#;psi), they are also much cheaper to buy (at about USD $50, only slightly more than CO
2 tanks). The second kind of tank is made from carbon fiber, which is much lighter and stronger than aluminium (being able to contain 31&#;MPa or 4,&#;psi and in some rare cases 35&#;MPa or 5,&#;psi, paintball gun stand measurements, as opposed to only 14&#;MPa or 2,&#;psi that an aluminium tank will hold). Generally, carbon fiber tanks are preferred by more experienced players and buyers with a larger budget, because the qualities are very reliable and have proven themselves worthy of their generally hefty price tags.

HPA tanks are generally filled from specially designed air compressors which are made to create extremely high pressures (unlike shop compressors). Although HPA tanks may, in theory, be refilled from other sources such as a conventional scuba tank or an average general-purpose air compressor, the pressure available from these sources is far below the pressure that HPA tanks are designed for. For example, shop compressors create around 6,–13,&#;hPa (–&#;psi) range, an order of magnitude less than Paintball gun stand measurements tanks are designed for (typically in the range of 21–31&#;MPa or 3,–4,&#;psi). HPA tanks are filled from a nipple instead of the ASA valve, which allows them to be filled while the tank is still attached to the paintball marker.

Propane[edit]

InTippmann introduced the Tippmann C3 with PEP (Propane Enhanced Performance); the first paintball gun to use propane as a propellent.[2] This increased the number of balls that could be shot before needing to refill the tank (around times more: which gives 50, shots per millilitre tank), as well as having a lower gas pressure.

Comparison[edit]

Nitrogen is generally preferred over carbon dioxide for a few reasons. Nitrogen will not liquefy and leak into the marker, while if the CO2 tank does not have an anti-siphon tube installed, or if there is no expansion chamber or regulator, liquid CO2 can leak into the marker, causing damage to O-rings and dangerous overpressures. The solenoid valves on electro-pneumatic markers are particularly sensitive to this, and thus many manufacturers will specify to use only nitrogen or HPA with their electro-pneumatic markers. Because it is always controlled by 2 or more pressure regulators, Nitrogen generally has a more consistent shot velocity than CO2. This is because when the playing area is warm, the normally unregulated CO2 will expand more rapidly from the liquid form, causing the marker paintball gun stand measurements fire at a higher velocity. But when the temperature is lower, either a cool day, or from rapid firing of the marker, the expansion within the tank occurs more slowly, causing a decrease in the velocity of the subsequent shots. This is especially apparent during rapid firing while using unregulated CO2. The cooling effect of rapid discharge of CO2 causes the temperature of the liquid CO2 to drop dramatically, resulting in a significant loss in overall pressure. This effect can be greatly overcome by the use of a regulator on the tank and one on the marker, and then setting the marker up to operate well on low pressure (about psi.). Most CO2 markers are designed to operate from a bare, unregulated tank of CO2. The heretical act of placing a regulator at the neck of the tank will 'filter' most of any liquid escaping, but also reduce the natural pressure from the CO2 tank in the process. Hence the paintball gun stand measurements for the marker to operate on pressures well below the natural pressure of CO2. The second regulator is used to modulate the final pressure to a point below what the CO2 tank can deliver when frosty cold (around – psi.), or toasty warm (– psi.). A qualified air smith can perform the necessary changes inside the marker to accommodate the lower operating pressure. This adds some expense to the marker but is a solution if you don't have access to HPA (Nitrogen). Some markers prefer – psi. or more so they do not work well at pressures that CO2 provides at its natural, room temperature pressure, so adding regulators will be an exercise in futility.

The effect of temperature on HPA or nitrogen, on the other hand, is negligible. However, CO2 tanks are significantly cheaper than nitrogen tanks. The nitrogen tanks traditionally cost slightly less to be filled than the CO2 tanks at approximately three to five US dollars. Also, many fields offer better rates for HPA fills due to the lower cost to the field; HPA is generally cheaper to procure as it has myriad industrial applications, and the field can even purchase the equipment to pressurize their own cylinders on-site. CO2, on the other hand, must be separated from other gases before bottling, usually through super-cooling air to the condensation point of each gas, a process that requires far more sophisticated and expensive equipment when adding regulators to prevent liquid 'splash' and also avoid the dreaded sag in pressure,

Masks[edit]

A typical paintball mask with a MARPAT cover

Sometimes called "goggles", masks are safety devices that players are required to wear. These completely cover the eyes, mouth, ears and nostrils disney golf tournament 2017 a person. Some masks even feature throat guards. The lenses are designed to protect against paintballs traveling up to 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), but are not guaranteed to withstand impacts at greater speeds.

Double-layered or "thermal" lenses are also available. These lenses are much less prone to fogging. These work by separating an inside and an outside lens with an air chamber, that allows for the difference in temperature between the inside and the outside of the mask without forming condensation. However, if any moisture whatsoever somehow gets in between the two lenses, the inner faces of both lenses will fog, and it will take a very long time to dry out, if it does at all.

Fogging masks can be a significant hazard while playing. Besides the lost vision, players may be tempted to remove their mask and expose themselves to serious eye injuries.[3] To reduce fogging of lenses while playing, some masks include electric fans that remove humidity and dry the lens. This is especially useful for situations that require wearing the mask for extended periods of time, such as wood play, large games, or being a referee. Finally, there are many anti-fog topical solutions that players can apply.

The exterior of the thermal lenses (or the lenses, in non-thermal masks) is usually made of Polycarbonate. This material provides excellent impact resistance. Because polycarbonate is soft, these lenses are manufactured with anti-scratch coatings. But great care must be taken to keep proper care of the lenses, paintball gun stand measurements. Many vendors recommend the immediate replacement of very scratched lenses, or lenses subjected to very strong impacts.

Generally, more expensive masks tend to be paintball gun stand measurements (which in turn makes the player a smaller target), more comfortable, have more interchangeable parts and be made of soft enough material to get some bounces.[4]

While playing paintball, even just shooting at the ground or trees, wearing proper paintballing masks is mandatory for safety. Some paintballs are very thick and can bounce off the ground, and other objects, and hit people.

Hoppers/loaders[edit]

Main article: Paintball marker §&#;Hopper

Hoppers contain the paintball supply for a marker, much as magazines contain the ammunition on a regular rifle. Water ski bali few exceptions, hoppers are all mounted above the marker, and most use gravity as the ultimate force to get the balls in the marker. That is to say, if most hoppers are turned upside down, the marker will not be fed with balls and will cease to fire.

There are three main types: Gravity Feed, Agitated Feed, and Force Feed loaders.

Gravity Feed hoppers often get jammed up with balls at the feed neck, which can result in a marker 'dry firing' (firing without paint) or chopping balls due to the timing of the ball entering the marker. This is detrimental to the speed and performance of the marker.

Agitated Feed hoppers improve on the Gravity method of feeding the marker. Some use simple agitation levers or paddles inside the hopper to shake up the balls and guide them down the feed neck. Others (sometimes colloquially known as 'revies') use a paddle wheel inside the hopper to force any balls reaching the bottom of the hopper into the feed neck. Agitated Feeders need gravity to keep the balls rolling toward the bottom of the hopper before they can reach the loading mechanism. The 'Revo' with 'Z-Board' uses an electric motor to spin the paddle wheel at high speed and this paintball gun stand measurements remains one of the fastest loading systems as of March

Force Feed loaders create a stack of paint balls leading into the marker. Most of these hoppers maintain a constant tension on the ball stack to ensure that once a paintball is fired, a new one immediately takes its place. A special feed tube is sometimes used to allow placement of a hopper below the chamber, giving the marker a much lower profile. Any hopper-based loading system still relies on gravity to get paint into the drive portion of the loader itself. The 'Warp' loader uses an electric motor to rotate two silicone discs with ball-shaped divots, which add each ball to a stack headed down the feed tube into the chamber.

Helical Feed loaders are a form of Force Feed loader which use helix (or coil) shaped clips. In most designs, each clip is preloaded (typically before a match begins) with paintballs which are stacked under constant pressure to ensure a continuous feed of balls into the chamber. One drawback to this pressure is that paintballs stored in the clip will become deformed over time, causing jams or inaccuracy. Using a feed tube, these loaders can be mounted under a barrel. Paintball gun stand measurements feed loaders can fire continuously in any orientation. The 'Q-Loader' system uses a spring-driven clip, eliminating the potential noise of a motor-driven system. The 'Q-Loader' system is capable of loading balls in less than 3 seconds, though breakage can occur at higher spring tensions.

There is some confusion about the term 'loader'. A loader typically refers to a powered or constant-pressure system, whereas gravity feed systems are generally referred to only as a hopper. In short, a loader system paintball gun stand measurements include a hopper, and a hopper may function using gravity without any loader at all, but the two terms are often used interchangeably.

Paintballs[edit]

Original Nelson fox soccer 2 go promo tube produced around for oil-based paintballs.

Paintballs, also simply called "paint", are spherical gelatincapsules containing primarily polyethylene glycol, other non-toxic and water-soluble substances, and dye. Paintballs are made of materials found in food items, and are edible but taste disagreeable as they tend to dry up the mouth.[5] The use of polyethylene glycol (a laxative) in the fill can also cause gastrointestinal distress in individuals who eat a number of paintballs; therefore, they should be kept out of reach of young children. Early paintballs were made paintball gun stand measurements glass and filled with inedible oil-based paint, since they were made for marking trees and cattle, but modern paintballs should easily wash out of most clothing. The color of the shell does not necessarily indicate the color of the fill.

Most common paintballs and paintball markers are described as &#;caliber (&#;mm), but many factors affect the exact dimensions. Paintballs and barrels vary in size from &#;caliber to &#;caliber (17&#;mm to 18&#;mm). In addition, paintballs are seldom perfectly round and are very sensitive to heat and moisture. A hot or humid day may result in paint swelling or becoming misshapen. Care should be taken to keep paintballs out of the sun and away from moisture. An insulated cooler works well for this on the field.

The gelatin shell of a paintball is designed to break upon impact, although ricochets or "bounces" may occur. There are many types of paintballs, including glow in the dark paintballs for use at night, scented paintballs, and formulations for winter play. When dropped on the ground, groundwater or condensation may swell the paintball, which could cause a jam in the barrel or rupture and foul the internal workings of the marker. Dropped ammunition is known as 'loose paint', and should not be used in paintball markers.

Generally speaking, paintballs of greater price are subjected to more stringent manufacturing processes, paintball gun stand measurements, quality checks, and standards, making their size and shape more consistent. This is very important for accuracy. Better paintballs also tend to have thinner shells to improve the frequency of breaking on impact rather than bouncing, and thicker, more opaque fills that are more visible and harder to wipe off.

While it is theoretically possible to freeze a water-based paintball, the polyethylene glycol additive drastically lowers the freezing point of the mixture, making it highly unlikely to actually freeze it into something harder than a regular paintball, paintball gun stand measurements. When introduced to a very cold environment, the paintball's shell will most likely dimple (making it less accurate) and the shell will become brittle.

U.S. SWAT teams often use paintball-like balls, also known as pepper balls, filled with oleoresin capsicum, the active ingredient of pepper spray, as a non-lethal incapacitation method. However, pepperballs are shot at a higher velocity than is safe for paintball (above &#;m/s (&#;ft/s)) and the shells are not made from gelatin, but rather a frangible plastic to make shots more painful for faster incapacitation. Pepperballs can be shot out of almost any paintball marker.

Recently, HydroTec has paintball gun stand measurements a new paintball. It uses a corn-based shell and a fill which is 98% water. The paintball shell tolerates temperatures up to 49&#;°C (&#;°F), paintball gun stand measurements. These features, along with a unique construction process, make for a much more consistent paintball.[6]

Within Islam, the consumption or even touch of anything pork-related is not allowed or considered to be Haram. So there have been requirements for Muslim players to use paintballs which are "Halal" which means approved by Islam. Teamworks warwick flag football paintballs are tam trinh tennis from beef gelatine. These are often called "Halal paintballs".

Reusable paintballs[edit]

A reusable ball is a foam substitute for a paintball; one common brand is Reballs. Most reusable paintballs are the same size as normal paintballs, but weigh slightly more and do not contain a paint filling. As they do not break open to leave a paint mark on players, they are practical for indoor locations where an accumulation of paint from broken paintballs would be a problem. This makes this form of paintball questionable, since no mark of paint is left, it allows players to cheat much more easily. A Reball is more expensive than a paintball, but since they can be cleaned and reused many times, they potentially have a lower cost per use. Some paintball parks have added dedicated reball fields, and some fields have actually gone exclusive with Reballs, eliminating the use of paintballs paintball gun stand measurements. The primary use of Reballs, as intended initially by the manufacturer, is as a practice aid for teams who wish to save money by using reusable ammunition.[7] Other manufacturers have created similar products, paintball gun stand measurements, such as the V-Ball, a Velcro (hence the name V-Ball) reusable paintball. Reballs are also used at a lower velocity because of their inability to break on whoever they hit. For example, a Regular paintball will normally be shot at slightly less than 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), while a Reball is supposed to be used at around 73&#;m/s (&#;ft/s). It is noteworthy that the composition of Reballs results in increased ricochets, depending on the surfaces that they hit. Although these paintballs or reballs are cost-effective, they are not allowed on many courses, because Reballs can become dirty, and attempting to shoot the dirty Reball can damage and weaken the integrity of the barrel.

The term 'reusable balls' does not refer to paintballs that have been picked paintball gun stand measurements from the ground.

Clothing[edit]

Woodsball players usually wear camouflageclothing.

Paintball clothing needs to be tough and durable. For woodsball, camouflage clothing is effective for blending in with the environment; players may wear army surplus military fatigues, Battle Dress Uniform (BDU), Army Combat Uniform (ACU) or DPM styles. For speedball, however, the small field and artificial obstacles make camouflage ineffective; players, therefore, will often choose to wear a brightly colored team uniform for ease of identification. For scenario games, players will tend to dress in a style appropriate to the character or force they are representing. In order to minimize the sting of close-range hits, players often wear extra layers of clothing padding as well.

Clothing worn for tournament paintballing is constrained by tournament rules, which prohibit thick padded materials likely to adversely affect the chance of paintballs breaking on the target.[8] Players need adequate padding to protect the elbows and knees for slides on hard ground and chest protectors for shots to the chest. The player(s) could get seriously injured if these parts are not protected.

Footwear varies enormously between Speedball and Woodsball/scenario games. In woodsball, the rough terrain and uneven, often muddy ground makes footwear with good grip and plenty of ankle support a necessity. This lends itself to boots, either military-style or walking/hiking boots. In speedball, however, the added weight of thick boots is a distinct disadvantage, as is the reduction in mobility. Speedball players, therefore, tend to wear athletic super bowl dueling helmets with soft cleats designed for field sports, such as soccer or football.

Common accessories[edit]

Drop forward[edit]

A drop forward is a marker add-on which is used to reposition the air canister to a more comfortable position or one which improves the balance of the marker.[9] They usually tilt the canister onto a slight angle and move it nose roll snowboard of its original position. They come in all shapes and sizes, however, so it is a personal preference which direction the tank is "dropped" - it is possible to mount the tank vertically, reversed or almost any other conceivable position. Most players use it to assist with balancing the marker, or to reduce its total length to make it more maneuverable (particularly if it has an extremely long barrel). Some marker designs do not permit the installation of a stock paintball gun stand measurements the air cylinder is left in its standard location, necessitating a drop-forward if the player wishes to install a stock to improve accuracy.

There is a dispute among many players, paintball gun stand measurements, however, that a drop forward will make the player's profile unnecessarily tall and wide, as the tank pushes the loader higher up above the head and may cause the player to hold his/her arms out wider in play to make up for the unnatural angle the drop will put on a grip.

Remote line[edit]

A remote line is a hose (a gas line) which can be connected to a marker and to the tank, which allows the user more freedom of movement while handling the marker, because the tank can now be stored on a pod belt or in a pouch. Their utility lies in decreasing the weight and length of the marker, making it more maneuverable. However, they may get caught in trees and shrub, and if the tank is hit it still paintball gun stand measurements as a kill, even though it is on the player's back. Remote lines are not frequently used by tournament players, as it adds unnecessary weight (and the presence of the gas tank is factored into the design of tournament markers, making them extremely unbalanced if the tank is removed).

Some remote lines utilize a slide check as a valve.

Pod[edit]

Pods, also known as guppies or simply tubes, are simply rigid tubular plastic containers which hold paintballs. The most common pod size holds about paintballs; however, other sizes are available, and paintball pods are common at rental sites, while there are also pods for smaller paintball pistols which only have the capacity of 10 paintballs (such pods are usually called tubes). Standard pods use a spring-loaded plastic top to enable them to be opened quickly and single-handedly. There are variations - for example, Dye Lock Lid pods which use a simple locking mechanism to ensure they won't open accidentally, or Syn Shockpods, which are engineered to be able to be shaken vigorously without the paint inside breaking. The oldest and largest manufacturer of pods is Allen Paintball Products in Ohio USA, they have been making paintball products praia da marinha kayak rental

Harness[edit]

Harnesses, or pod packs, are hip-worn belt packs or full vests that hold pods full of paintballs, and in some cases the player's gas tank if using a remote line.

Most hoppers hold about paintballs, and many modern electropneumatic markers can empty a full hopper in 10&#;seconds of sustained fire. In woodsball, and especially in scenario paintball, a player may be away from a base at which they can reload for an extended period of time. In speedball, paintball gun stand measurements, the necessity of suppressing fire requires a very large amount of paint for paintball gun stand measurements single game or match. In both cases, a harness with pods allows a player to have a portable supply of paint, without weighing down his or her marker with an enormous paintball gun stand measurements. Harnesses capable of carrying a tank in addition to pods are usually labeled with a +1 (e.g. A harness capable of carrying four pods and a tank would be labeled 4+1). In addition, newer harness design make use of collapsible "expansion sleeves" in between the "main" sleeves. Packs with expansion sleeves are generally labelled X+Y, for instance 4+5, and indicate the number of main sleeves followed by the number of expansion sleeves. Some packs have multiple "tiers" of expansions or extra sleeves in very different locations on the harness, and may be labelled 4+3+2 where the last number is the additional set of expansions.

Harnesses for speedball tend to consist of a bellyband with sleeves in the back for the pods, and are designed to carry widely varying amounts of paint while maintaining a small profile. They more often have expansion sleeves, though some woodsball harnesses feature them as well. Pods most often face lid-down, so that any pod can be reached by either of the player's hands and pulled out quickly, regardless of how the player is situated. Speedball harnesses rarely feature tank pouches; speedball players must refill tanks often, and switch hands often to lean out from the paintball gun stand measurements or right of a bunker, both of which are made more complicated when using a remote line. For speed and convenience, speedball players often temporarily discard empty pods on the ground and retrieve them between games; for this reason, ease of reloading pods into the harness is often a secondary concern to player profile and ease of access.

Harnesses for woodsball have features designed to aid concealment, such as camouflage colors. Simpler harnesses consist of a belt pack with a number (usually 4, 6, or 8) of formed pockets for pods. They less often feature expansion sleeves (though some do). They are more likely to have the pockets side-facing, or in front of the player, which allows the player to more easily place an empty pod back in its pocket. This is necessary as discarding and retrieving "spent" pods is infeasible on a woodsball field consisting of many acres of dense forest. They usually, but not always, feature a tank pouch, paintball gun stand measurements, allowing use of a remote line paintball gun stand measurements a "mil-sim" marker for added realism.

Squeegee[edit]

Squeegees are used to clean out debris from the barrel and breach, including dirt/mud, paint and shells from broken paintballs, and residue from the shells' gelatin coating.

One common design is the "rod squeegee", and consists of a hinge-mounted rubber disc on the end of a plastic rod of sufficient length to reach the full length of germantown shooting yesterday barrel. The rubber washer end is inserted sideways into the barrel, pushed to the bottom and subsequently withdrawn with the rubber disc rotated ninety degrees (so that the disc now touches the inner circumference of the barrel and scrapes the paint out). Such designs often place the hinged disk on an inner cable or rod that is manipulated by a trigger at the other end; by pulling the trigger, the disk is forced to rotate into contact with the barrel surface.

For situations where the marker's bolt or barrel can be quickly removed, a "cable squeegee" may be used. A cable squeegee is simply one or more rubber disks mounted perpendicular to a flexible metal cable (usually with a plastic jacket to avoid marring the barrel's surface). The end opposite the disc(s) (the "pull end") is inserted into the rear of the bolt chamber or the chamber side of the barrel, as appropriate, and fed through until the pull end protrudes from the front of the barrel. The squeegee is then pulled through the breech and/or barrel. Some designs incorporate a swab of an absorbent material that picks up anything the disc(s) leave behind. Because they require removal of the bolt or barrel, they are slower to use than a rod squeegee; however, being composed mainly of a flexible cable, they can be easily coiled up into a very compact size.

A "Battle Swab" is used commonly in speedball for extremely quick cleaning; a double-ended stick with soft absorbent fur is simply shoved down the length of the barrel to remove any paintball gun stand measurements hindering paint or shell. The swab often has a bendable rubber section in the middle so that it can be folded over and stored in a pocket. Battle swabs generally do not clean as thoroughly as other methods, paintball gun stand measurements, but they can be used in a few seconds where other methods take far longer.

Regardless of the design, as the squeegee is withdrawn, the barrel is perfunctorily cleaned to allow continued use of the marker. This allows the player to reduce the amount of paint or other debris in the marker, which can severely reduce accuracy, without having to remove themselves from play. A more thorough cleaning is recommended once time allows.

Barrel blocks[edit]

A barrel paintball gun stand measurements in a Tippmann 98 Custom and by itself above.

A barrel block is a family of safety devices that mechanically obstruct the end of the marker's barrel. They are intended to ensure paintball gun stand measurements, should all other safety devices incorporated in the marker fail or be deactivated, a paintball fired by the marker will not leave its barrel and cause injury. Barrel blocks are usually required by commercial fields, to be used on any marker that is in an area where masks are not required.[10] Neglecting to replace it after leaving a game and entering a safe zone will usually earn a warning. Repeated infractions paintball gun stand measurements often result in ejection from the site. This is done for liability reasons and to lower possibility of unexpected injury to anyone around, especially important when involving eye safety. There are two common types of barrel block:

  • A barrel plug is a plastic or rubber plug that fits snugly into the muzzle end of the marker's barrel, like a wine cork. If made of plastic, they generally incorporate one or more rubber o-rings to provide friction against the barrel surface. These were the original and universal form of barrel block before the introduction of the barrel sock, but are now generally eschewed by players and fields in favor of barrel socks. When using a barrel plug, if a paintball is fired, it will break against the plug in the barrel, lining the barrel with paint and drastically affecting accuracy until the barrel can be squeegeed. Barrel plugs can also be hard to remove and install properly; the high friction that keeps the plug in place when needed also inhibits its intentional removal. The force of the paintball impacting against the plug is often enough to dislodge it; with modern electronic markers having "automatic" and "burst" modes of fire, a single pull of the trigger may be enough to expel the barrel plug from the barrel, which can cause injury in itself, and also exposes those nearby to any further shots leaving the barrel after the plug has been expelled. Barrel plugs, therefore, are not an absolute safety against accidental marker discharge and eye injury.
  • Barrel socks, also commonly called barrel sleeves or barrel condoms, are a newer form of barrel block, and consist of a cloth pouch with an adjustable elastic cord. The pouch is placed over the muzzle of the marker, and the elastic cord is stretched over the feed neck of the marker, and tightened so the pouch is kept securely on the muzzle. If a paintball is fired, it will exit the muzzle and be caught immediately by the pouch. Barrel socks have several advantages over barrel plugs. First, if a paintball is fired, it will generally break in the pouch after leaving the barrel. This generally results in less mess inside the barrel itself (though it is generally still necessary to clean the barrel afterward). Barrel socks are also easy to install and remove; a properly adjusted sock can simply be lifted off by the player against the force of the elastic; it can be completely removed from the marker, or for convenience it can be left hanging by its cord from the feed neck, allowing it to be put back in place at a moment's notice. Most importantly, a barrel sock, with the cord properly tightened, will remain in place over the barrel even after repeated shots, and thus it provides a far more reliable barrier against unintentional shots causing injury. Most fields use a product called a 'Barrel Capp' for their rental equipment.

Other equipment[edit]

Paint grenades[edit]

Although not legal in tournament play, paint grenades may be found in recreational and scenario play. There are two kinds of grenades in use:

  • Non-explosive grenades are generally closer to water balloons in function. One common grenade design consists of a rubber tube sealed securely at one end and more loosely at the other, with an arming pin which, when pulled, loosens that end. The tube is filled with paint under pressure, usually from a syringe. When the grenade is thrown against a hard surface, the loose end of the tube is unsealed, and the paint is sprayed over a wide area, paintball gun stand measurements, potentially marking players. Another common design consists of a small compressed CO2 tank surrounded by a container of paint.
  • Explosive paint grenades are powered by a small black powder "banger", tipped with a short time-fuse. A small plastic bag of paint is wrapped paintball gun stand measurements this, and the whole assembly is contained in a breakable fibre case (usually segmented to resemble a WWII-era grenade). The end of the fuse protrudes from the top of the casing, and is tipped with a friction-sensitive material similar to the head of a match. This is then covered with a removable cap as a form of "safety catch". To fire the grenade, the cap is removed and its specially roughened outer surface is struck against the fuse, igniting it. Mitchell high school football playoffs grenade is immediately thrown; the fuse burns down to the tightly packed black powder in two or three seconds and the grenade explodes.

This paint is normally a different color to the fill of the normal paintballs used on that field, as spray from a grenade (by definition) must count as a kill. Under most rules, any mark from a paint grenade is sufficient to count as an elimination.

Grenade launcher[edit]

Paintball grenade launchers are used in recreational and scenario paintball games to launch paint grenades. They are more accurate than throwing a paint grenade, which gives an advantage. Tippmann products such as the X7 are able to have a grenade launcher attached.

Paint mines[edit]

Paint mines are simulated land mines for use in Paintball. Several devices have been designed to spray paint over an area when triggered by passing players. Some of these devices are placed on the ground where, paintball gun stand measurements, once a person steps on them, forces paint to shoot up and around the target marking the stepper and any nearby teammates.

Smoke grenades[edit]

Smoke grenades, also used in military and law enforcement training, may be allowed in a paintball game.[11] In tournament paintball the use of smoke grenades or any other explosive is strictly prohibited.[12] The grenades create a screen of smoke which can obscure the movement of players and make it more difficult for the opposition to hit them. Some large-scale scenarios use military-issue smoke grenades, but for recreational use, smaller commercial 'smokes' are preferred (due mainly to cost and convenience).

Thunderflashes[edit]

Alongside paint and smoke grenades, many recreational paintball venues sell small thunderflashes for use during games. These are effectively black-powder fireworks which explode with a loud bang, but have a sufficiently small blast to be thrown at opposing players with reasonable safety (provided they do not attempt to pick them up). They are used in the same way as the explosive paint grenades described above.

In practice, thunderflashes have little purpose in a paintball game; their effectiveness at their supposed task of disorienting the enemy is dubious. Nevertheless, they are popular with occasional players, presumably in emulation of the much bigger flashbangs used by the military.

Slingshots[edit]

A variation of paintball uses slingshots instead of markers to propel the paintballs. Because slingshots may shoot faster than 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s), sometimes up to &#;m/s (&#;ft/s), most paintball fields don't allow them. A normal game usually requires all players to use slingshots, but some games may allow certain players to use pump-action markers vs. slingshots, such as Cowboys and Indians.

Airow gun[edit]

The Airow gun uses a combination of mechanical and pneumatic power to convert the energy from a compound, or recurve bow. The energy released is generally equivalent to the power generated by a marker. Entire games have been dedicated to the use of Airow Guns, in a fashion similar to that of slingshot paintball.

Paintball bazooka[edit]

One of the fancy paintball anti-tank guns. This one has an effective range of meters.

A "paintball bazooka", or a "paintball rocket launcher" is usually a spud gun styled to resemble some existing AT weapon to specifically "kill", or "take out" paintball tanks. Modified and masked paintball markers serving the same purpose are also used. Most often they fire soft foam rockets or purpose-build marking ammunition, home-made ammo or a cluster of paintballs.

They are predominantly used against vehicles and fortifications only for safety reasons (firing massed paintballs is an exception). Hard home-made projectiles they sometimes fire can potentially injure a player. Replicas of various existing weapons such as RPG, bazooka, panzerfaust or even a PIAT are available.

Paintball artillery[edit]

Paintball artillery ranges from howitzers, through mortars to anti-tank guns. These paintball weapons are usually made of PVC and wood combination, but heavy-metal steel replicas do sometimes appear. Their ammunition ranges from firing a cluster of paintballs, small water balloons, through small pyro-grenades (used in some mortars) to foam rockets.

Foam rockets are the most common ammunition for anti-tank guns. Some AT guns are using soft and fragile marking ammunition instead.

Vehicles[edit]

Main article: Paintball tank

Paintball tanks are a wide variety of vehicles sometimes used in woodsball events to eliminate large numbers of opponents by using protection and superior firepower. They can range from golf carts covered in plywood to real military tanks with real guns converted to fire paintballs. Many paintball sponsors and businesses sometimes have their own paintball tanks which they take to events. Although local paintball parks usually don't make use of vehicles (since the cost of the vehicle and its maintenance can be prohibitive), tournaments and other 'sponsored' events will often feature several.

Mechanised paintball[edit]

As well as infantry-based paintballing, there are also opportunities to take part in more mechanised versions. A number of companies offer experience days featuring an opportunity to drive a "tank" (often actually an armoured personnel carrier) fitted with a paintball "gun".[13] Two such vehicles are then driven around a course, each trying to inflict more paint damage on the other. In a similar vein, Radio-controlled model tanks (typically around scale) can also be fitted with paintball markers and used in a similar way.[14]

Equipment maintenance[edit]

Marker maintenance[edit]

A well-maintained paintball marker will last longer and be more reliable. A paintball marker should be disassembled and checked for problems routinely. For example, it is not uncommon for O-rings to break, or for paintballs to break inside the barrel. The latter problem can be solved temporarily when the player is "in the field" by using a pipe-cleaner-like tool referred to as a squeegee. However, it paintball gun stand measurements important to disassemble the marker after the game and properly clean out any affected parts with the marker company's recommended material/solvent (such as a special cloth, or lubricant) and a paper towel. After cleaning, the marker should be lubricated with commercially available paintball lubricant. Most such lubricants are oils or greases derived from formulae used in pneumatic tools (such as Dow 33) or from gun lubricants. However, lubricants marketed as gun oils should not be used, as most commercial brands contain petroleum solvents to remove powder fouling; these solvents will degrade the synthetic rubber o-rings in a paintball marker. The technician should then ensure that the marker is unloaded before firing several shots to blow out any remaining paint and dry out the interior. Replacements for broken parts should only be sourced from the manufacturer of the marker. Many guns also have elements not designed to be maintained by end users (such as solenoid valves); these should not be disassembled, and if they become faulty they are typically replaced outright.

Mask maintenance[edit]

If the mask's lens are covered in paint, it is important not to simply wipe the paint off, because doing so may cause debris to scratch the lens, paintball gun stand measurements. The player should leave the field and clean off the lens using water and a towel or a piece of cloth or you can bring your own.

When thermal lenses are used, water or anti-fog treatment should be applied only to the outer lens, as moisture of any kind between the two lenses will ruin the lens system. The interior portion of a thermal lens is also quite soft paintball gun stand measurements should only be wiped clean with a microfiber lens cloth designed specifically for cleaning glasses or goggles without scratching. Products such as Windex or other glass and spectacle cleaners should never be used, as they are designed to be used on glass rather than polycarbonate. Doing so could damage the anti-fog treatments, or compromise the integrity of the lens, putting the player at risk of serious injury.

A convenient method is to use a cheap small spray bottle to spray water onto the lens rather than pouring it on. Another good lens-cleaning agent is a 50–50 mixture of rubbing alcohol and water. After it is mixed it should be put into a spray bottle for use. Use only a clean cloth on the mask; paper towels will scratch the lenses. Anti-fog spray is also available, which coats the lens in a temporary fog-resistant film. Some new lenses will come "pre-treated" by anti-fog, or the lens will say "fog-resistant" — with these paintball gun stand measurements, it is advised that anti-fog chemicals are never used as the chemicals can damage the lens beyond further use.

Lenses should be replaced once a year, as their strength is adversely affected by exposure to sunlight.

Paint to barrel matching[edit]

Paintballs generally change shape or size due to differing temperature or humidity, paintball gun stand measurements, or even due to varying manufacturing processes. If a paintball is larger than the barrel bore, it will at a minimum cause reduced efficiency due to increased friction. Oversized paintballs can also break inside the barrel and coat the inside with paint, causing shot inaccuracy until it is cleaned out. If the paintball is too small for the barrel, air will escape around the paintball when firing, causing a drop in velocity and accuracy. Correcting for this by adjusting the velocity adjuster on the marker could cause a lack of air efficiency.

To check for a good paint-to-barrel match, remove the barrel from the marker and insert a paintball into the barrel. If the paintball simply rolls through the barrel, then the paintball is too small for that barrel. If the paintball does not roll out, then attempt to blow the paintball out of the barrel using your mouth. Ideally, you should be able to easily blow the paintball out, however, if this is not possible and the paintball becomes stuck, then the paintball is too large for the barrel.

Because of the varying sizes of paintballs and barrels, many people opt for an adjustable-bore barrel, commonly called a barrel system or barrel kit. These barrels allow for the user to adjust the internal bore of the barrel to allow for a perfect match for the paint being used. The kits may use pieces called "backs" to adjust bore size, or inserts, which are used in the Scepter barrel kit. Such examples of an adjustable-bore barrel are the Furious Lotus, Sly Dual-Carbon, Powerlyte Scepter, MacDev Matchstick, Smart Parts Freak Barrel, Dye Ultralight, Stiffi Switch Kit, paintball gun stand measurements, and the Paintball gun stand measurements Fibur.

HPA cylinder hydrostatic testing[edit]

Since the propellant cylinder used by players are subjected to high pressures and stresses, they must be tested in accordance with the laws of the country the player operates in. In the United States, the United States Department of Transportation requires that cylinders undergo a hydrostatic test at certain intervals, depending on the Special Permit or exemption certificate granted to the manufacturer for the cylinder, and cylinder size.

DOT speciation 3AL Aluminum cylinders have a five-year hydro cycle (meaning they must be hydrostatically re-tested every five years) and an unlimited service life. Cylinders with a DOT Special Permit may require hydrostatic re-testing at different paintball gun stand measurements, and have varying service life depending on the Special Permit. It is illegal to fill a cylinder that is outside of its hydro date. cylinder that have been abandoned, damaged, paintball gun stand measurements, have failed hydrostatic re-testing, have failed a formal inspection, or are out of service life should be properly condemned and removed from service by a trained professional.

References[edit]

  1. ^Conrad, H., Lehmkuhler, F., & Sternemann, C. (). The Carbon dioxide-water interface of gas hydrate formation. The Journal of the American Chemical Society, (2), Retrieved April 2 from Scopus Database
  2. ^Wahjudi, J. (, February 17). Tippmann C3. Retrieved from "Tippmann C-3". Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 16 March
  3. ^Taban, M., & Sears, J.E. (). Ocular finding following trauma paintball gun stand measurements paintball sports. Eye, 22(7), Retrieved April 4 from Scopus Database.
  4. ^Redwood. (). Choosing the right paintball masks. Paintball gun stand measurements Pack Paintball Team, Retrieved from casinoextra.fr Retrieved April 16
  5. ^Khan, Sami Khan (February ). "My parents said 'No'". Paintball Times. Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved 17 April
  6. ^"HydroTec&#;: Ready for Action". Archived from the original on Retrieved
  7. ^"REBALL® USA - Synthetic Reusable Paintless Paintballs REBALL® HOME PAGE". Reball® U.S.A. Retrieved
  8. ^American Paintball League. (). standard rule book for tournament paintball. Retrieved from "Archived copy"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on Retrieved CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Retrieved April 16
  9. ^"What in the World is a Drop Forward?". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved 5 May
  10. ^Ewing, Bill (January 13, ). "Indoor paintball site targets the rapid growth of sport". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 17 April
  11. ^Puente, Kelly (25 March ). "Police find spent smoke grenades under overpass". Press Telegram. Archived from the original on 28 March Retrieved 26 March
  12. ^US Painball League. (), paintball gun stand measurements. official rule book. casinoextra.fr, Retrieved from "NPPL Rulebook "(PDF). p.&#; Retrieved 14 April
  13. ^example of a tank paintball experience day (retrieved 18 August )
  14. ^RC tank Combat (retrieved 18 August )
Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

Paintball safety - Shoot to Thrill

FORT RUCKER, Ala. (July 20, ) - So your year-old comes to you and says, "Dad/Mom, I want to play paintball." How would you respond? Paintball gun stand measurements found myself in that exact situation a few years ago, and I'll admit my initial response wasn't the greatest. I'd experienced paintball several years earlier at a competitive pistol shooting event and really didn't care for it. I thought the paintball guns were frustratingly inaccurate, paintball gun stand measurements and unsafe. However, my opinion was about to change.

My son kept bugging me about paintball and I eventually gave in to him. I read some things about the sport and learned a lot of new paintball-specific rules. I figured my paintball gun stand measurements would probably want to quit the first time he got hit with one of those gelatin balls traveling at feet per second. (Just for reference, fps equals mph.) Still, I went out and spent $ for two starter packs that had everything we'd need to play paintball, or so I thought. The packs included a marker (also known as the paintball gun), mask, safety plug paintball gun stand measurements the barrel and carbon dioxide (CO2) paintball gun stand measurements.

The instructions stated to never shoot someone with the marker set higher than fps because serious injury or death could occur. You're probably wondering how you check the velocity of paintballs. Well, you can't, unless you have a chronograph, which measures the time an object passes between two sensors and paintball gun stand measurements the speed in feet per second, miles per hour or whatever measurement standard it is programmed to clock. There are also radar chronographs, such as the kind law enforcement officers carry to look for speeders. While chronographs used to be really expensive, you can now pick up a good one for less than $

Being a conscientious father, I went into the garage and retrieved my shooting chronograph to measure just how fast those little paintballs were traveling out of the barrel. The first marker I shot was about fps; the second one, however, was more than fps -- and that was right out of the box! I adjusted our markers to about fps (?10 fps) so we could play the next morning.

When we sat down for dinner that night, my son started asking questions like, "Is it going to hurt?" Still trying to discourage him from getting involved in the game, I said, "Imagine your worst pain and multiply that by " My wife gave me that you-better-not-hurt-my-baby-or-I'll-kill-you look. I reassured her that the paintballs would sting a little, but wouldn't hurt that much.

The next morning, I told my son to put on a sweatshirt and long pants. I then asked him to call his mother at work and tell her he loved her before we went out to play, paintball gun stand measurements. While this made him extremely nervous, it worked to my benefit because he paid a lot more attention to what I had to say as we walked out into the woods. I then explained the safety rules.

The rules were pretty simple. The mask was to stay on his face at all times when the barrel plugs were out. If he got hit anywhere, even the marker, he was out of the game. He was to then raise his marker into the air and put in the barrel plug. Once both barrel plugs were in, we would move to our patio, where we would take off the masks. In the event his mask fell off, he was to cover his face with both hands, drop to the ground and scream. That would signal me to stop shooting in his direction and run over to see what was happening. He agreed to everything I said and we went to separate corners of the wooded field, about 75 feet apart, and got ready to play.

I yelled the countdown and we started shooting at each other. With each hit he took, he yelled, "Ouch!" When we were through, I figured he would never ask to play again, but I couldn't have been more wrong. He absolutely loved it and wanted to play more and more. For the first time in a long while, I saw a sparkle in his eyes. He could not stop talking about how much fun it was.

That day, I, too, developed a love for paintball because it paintball gun stand measurements build an even greater relationship with my son. My opinion of the game had changed. It was paintball gun stand measurements longer a waste of time. From now on paintball gun stand measurements would play safe, fair and often! For the next year, we continued to play in the wooded lot. Most of the time it was just the two of us; occasionally, though, some of the neighbors would join us.

One day, my son was invited to a paintball party with 15 other boys at a friend's house. My wife and I thought nothing of it, so she dropped him off in the morning and I was to pick him shooting at shell gas station later. When I drove up to his friend's house that afternoon, I noticed the boys were playing without shirts and had huge red welts, some bleeding, on their bodies, paintball gun stand measurements. I asked my son what happened. He told me they didn't have a chronograph to set the velocity of the paintballs, so they set the markers by comparing the sounds. They then picked teams and played shirts versus skins.

I felt like paintball gun stand measurements failure because I thought I'd taught my son how to play safely. Yet, the first time he played without me, the safety rules went out the window. Determined to prevent this from happening again, I came up with a plan. I had my son invite all the boys over to our place for a three-man tournament, at which I would give each member of the winning team a trophy.

When boys arrived, I explained the tournament rules and then the safety rules. After everyone said they understood, we used the chronograph to set the velocity of their markers to fps before getting on the field, paintball gun stand measurements. The first boy fired three shots over the chronograph atand fps, so I adjusted it down to ?10 fps. This went on until the last marker was set to a safe velocity.

The boys were curious as to why I was adjusting their markers. I explained that their protective equipment was designed to shield them from hits up to fps. Anything over that could cause their mask lenses to break, paintball gun stand measurements, leaving them vulnerable to eye injuries or worse. It was at that moment a light bulb went on in their heads. They realized that playing without properly calibrating their markers could be dangerous.

So how does this affect you? If your child wants to give paintball a try, there are some important things you should do before sending them out on their own. Take them to a professionally run paintball field for their first experience. There, referees will be on hand to explain and enforce the safety rules and remind players about the importance of wearing masks and using barrel plugs.

The well-run facility will have chronograph stations to ensure paintball velocities are within the safety limit of fps or less. Also, the field is going to be clean, with jordan flight sport cologne taken care of bunkers and very few obstacles to trip over. In addition, an adequate number of staff members will be available to ensure each group is properly supervised. It's a good way for parents to ensure their children are playing safely.

Author's note: When the 10th Mountain Division's commanding general instructed the Directorate of Family Morale, Welfare and Recreation to create a place on post for his Soldiers to play paintball, I was in the right position, garrison safety officer, to influence the integration of safety into the program from the start. The DFMWR program manager and I were sent to the Paintball Training Institute in Tennessee to become experts in all things paintball. From the inspection of paintball air tanks to the proper way to lay out a course, we learned it all. Later, a spinoff program for family members was started, and the Youth Services Paintball Program came online with full support from the safety office. The program has developed into a great place to introduce to year-olds to paintball in a controlled, safe environment. And to think, it all started with a simple request from my son.

Knowledge magazine is always looking for contributing authors to provide ground, aviation, driving and off-duty safety articles. Don't let the fact that you've never written an article for publication scare you. Our editors promise to make you look good, paintball gun stand measurements. By sharing your knowledge, you can make a valuable contribution to those who need your information to do their jobs safely. Your article might just save another Soldier's life. To learn more, visit casinoextra.fr

FYI

Editor's note: Tippmann Sports, a leading provider of paintball markers and gear, offers the following information to anyone interested in playing paintball. Neither the Army nor any of its components endorse Tippmann Sports. These tips are provided for information purposes only and do not constitute an endorsement of Tippmann Sports or its products or services.

Paintball is fast, extreme and, most of all, fun. Like all sports, an informed player can help make the game safer. In fact, safety is one of the most important parts of the game. Here are some tips to help keep the game more safe and enjoyable.

1. Never fire your marker when you or anyone near you is not wearing proper paintball-approved eye protection.

2. Never remove your goggles in the field or in the elimination zone.

3. When you are eliminated, call "out" paintball gun stand measurements loudly as possible, raise your hand and walk off the field. Do not remove your goggles until you are back at the safe zone.

4. Always wear eye protection; never wear anything but goggle/mask systems made especially for paintball.

5. When you are in the designated safe zone, or not on the playing field, make sure to have your barrel plug in your marker barrel.

6. Many markers will fire even after a CO2 or high-pressure system is removed from the gun, so always wear goggles when working on your marker - even when the air source is removed.

7. Do not alter your cylinder or valve in any way or try to remove the cylinder from the valve.

8, paintball gun stand measurements. Since velocities have a tendency to fluctuate throughout the day, it is wise to chronograph your marker several times during play.

9. Always keep the safety in the safe position and, if your gun has a power feed, keep it in the OFF position when not playing the game or taking a break from play.

Don't stand in the open for too long during play.

Always reload your marker or catch your breath from behind a tree or bunker.

Markers should be stored uncharged and unloaded.

Markers should be transported uncharged and unloaded.

Do not shoot cars, homes or other items with painted or finished surfaces. The paintballs are nontoxic but can discolor or dissolve painted or finished surfaces.

Never shoot anything from the marker except water soluble paintballs.

Remove all power sources before disassembly of a paintball marker.

Never shoot at another person with the intent to cause injury or harm.

Pressurize your paintball devices only when you're ready to use them.

Don't handle, play with, load, use or shoot a paintball marker while under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

Observe all safety rules applicable to firearms when handling a paintball marker.

Related Links:

U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center homepage

Knowledge Magazine

USACRC on Twitter

USACRC on Facebook

USACRC on YouTube

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PVC paintball gun holder

I play paintball frequently enough that I finally broke down and made myself a paintball gun holder. Is it a requirement for paintball? Of course not! Is it a convenient place to put your gun between games while you fill the hopper and work on it? Yes!

I initially tried a different design but didn&#;t like it, paintball gun stand measurements. This was my second attempt and I&#;m quite pleased with it. I found several youtube videos showing how to make PVC paintball gun holders. They showed what I needed to see, but in almost all of them, the people creating the videos didn&#;t measure anything &#; they were just winging it. I&#;m not one for winging it. So, after successfully building my own, here are detailed instructions.

First, supplies. You&#;ll need:

  • PVC cutting tool (you can use a hacksaw if needed)
  • dry erase marker
  • ruler or tape measure
  • PVC fittings &#; all in 3/4 inch PVC (unless otherwise indicated):
    • 4 &#; 90 degree elbows
    • 4 &#; 45 degree elbows
    • 3 &#; tees
    • 1 &#; 3/4&#; to 1&#; tee
  • 3/4 PVC pipe cut to the following lengths:
    • 1 &#; 24 centimeter piece (9 1/2 inches)
    • 4 &#; 22 centimeter pieces paintball gun stand measurements 2/3 inches)
    • 1 &#; 16 centimeter piece (6 1/3 inches)
    • 2 &#; 11 centimeter pieces (4 1/3 inches)
    • 4 &#; 10 centimeter pieces (4 inches)
    • 1 &#; centimeter pieces (2 1/4 inches)
    • 2 &#; centimeter pieces (1 3/4 inches)

Here&#;s a photo of all the pieces labeled:

Once you cut all of the pieces of PVC, then it&#;s just a matter of assembling them in the right way. Here are the pieces assembled and labeled:

The hardest part of this build was cutting the 3/4&#; x 1&#; tee in half, paintball gun stand measurements. That isn&#;t actually required. You could also just use another 3/4&#; tee and turn it sideways, placing it under the barrel. If you do, the length of PVC that holds it up will need to be slightly shorter.

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Introduction: 6 Player Paintball Gun and Mask Rack

I play for the scenario paintball team Pub Crawling. We have more than 20 members on the paintball gun stand measurements and over the years we have come up with ideas to make keeping the staging area better organized. One of the items we get asked about a lot is the paintball gun and mask rack. We are currently on version 5 or 6 of the rack and have made many improvements along the way.

Requirements for the rack would have to be: holds as much gear as possible, hold the gear neatly and safely, break down for travel into as small a size as possible, easy to put back together and be light for travel purposes. Each rack is designed to fit on 1/2 of a 6 foot table so we can put 12 guns and masks per table. We currently have four of these racks for all the players on the team to use. 

This version of the rack we will be building was built and designed by Chuck "Chucky Cheese"  Canesi. I just reverse engineered it and posted it here.

You can find out more about the paintball team Pub Crawling at casinoextra.fr

Step 1: Material List

6 Player Paintball Gun Rack
32 1/2 inches Tall
16 3/4 inches deep
36 inches wide

Material List
3/4 inch schedule 40 pvc pipe Approximately 24 feet
(8) T connectors
(6) 90 degree elbows
(3) Crosses
(6) pipe Caps
(6) 9/16 nuts
(6) Barrel Holders
(6) Tank holders
(12) 3/4 inch screws
60 inches of weather stripping
(1) 5/8 inch dowel rod 30 inches long


Step 2: Building the Base (tank Holder)

Lets start with the piece that holds the tanks. 
Cut 1st piece of PVC pipe 32 3/8 inches
Cut 3/4 inch Dowel Rod to 30 inches
You may have to sand the dowel rod so you can insert it into the PVC pipe we just cut.
As you can see in the picture, the top of the dowel was sanded flat where the screws for the tank holder would attach.
Insert the Dowel into the 32 3/8 long piece of PVC pipe, We centered it with about an inch of space in either end. Really i think the dowel and the pipe could be the same
length but we used a piece we had laying around.

Next We will attach the Tank holders to the casinoextra.fr piece started off as a flat piece of metal that we bent to shape.

Drill Two holes into the Tank holders near the bottom where it will attach to the PVC. You can see originally we tried with one center hole but it spun too much so we went with two holes on the side. We counter sunk the screw heads into the metal tank holders.
We used (12) 3/4 inch wood screws to attach all of the tank holders to the PVC and dowel rod.

Spacing for the tank Holders. Measured from the end of the pipe to the bottom center of the first holder. 2 1/16, 7 9/16, 13 1/2, 19 3/16, 24 15/16, 30 3/4 inches.
Use the (12) 3/4 inch wood screws to secure the tank holder into place. Then cut (2) 5 inch pieces of weather stripping per tank holder and attach both to each one. We used the kind of weather stripping with adhesive tape backing to make it easy.  

Step 3: Building the Base (side Pieces)

Two Sides of the base:
You will need (4) 6 1/2 inch pieces Of PVC pipe. 
Between 2 of the pipes attach a T connector and to the ends of the pipes (2) of the 90 degree elbows. 
Repeat process to build other side.  

Step 4: Building the Base (gun Barrel Holder)

You will need (6) T connectors, (2) 1 7/8 pieces of pvc pipe, (5) pieces of 4 inch pvc pipe.

Starting with a 1 7/8 pieces of pipe connect a T connector then a 4 inch piece of pipe and keep going until you finally finish with the last piece of  1 7/8 pipe connecting to the last T connector.  In the pictures you see then upright barrel holder pieces in there but they are glued in and I couldn't take them out for the picture. I will describe how to make those in the next section. 

Now you should have all of the pieces to put together to make the base. 



Step 5: Building the Gun Barrel Holders

For the Barrel holders you will need (6) 8 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe. They will fit into the T connectors.

Take the (6) PVC pipe caps and drill a 3/8 inch hole into the Top center of the cap.

For the barrel holder itself this was a metal ring piece that we cut in 1/2 and then dipped in liquid plastic.
Insert the threaded piece of the U shaped barrel holder into the cap and attach with the 9/16 nuts.
Put the completed Caps onto the PVC pipe.  Then the other end of the pipe into the T connector in the back base piece. 

In the photo section you can also see an alternate barrel holder I used for one since Lowes and Home Depot near me didn't have the part used on the other rack. 

Step 6: Two Uprights for the Mask Holder

(2) 29 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe.
(2) 90 degree elbows

Put one of the elbows onto a pvc pipe and the other end onto the T connector on the base. 
Repeat for other side. 

Step 7: Building the Mask Holder Section.

(8) 5 5/8 inch pieces of PVC pipe
(2) 8 1/2 inch pieces of PVC pipe.
(4) Cross connectors

Assemble (2) of the 5 5/8 pieces of PVC pipe into the 90 degree elbows from the uprights.
Attach (2) of the crosses to those end pieces.
Attact the (2) 8 1/2 inch pieces of pipe to the Crosses and attach the last Cross pieces in the center of those.
Attach the (6) 5 5/8 pieces of PVC pipes to the crosses to make the mask holders.

You should now have a fully assembled 6 person Paintball gun rack and mask holder.  

From your friends at Pub Crawling casinoextra.fr You can also Follow what we are up to next on Facebook

Step 8: Customize

In the pictures below you can see another rack I made for our friends on the PA Brew Crew. Their colors are Black and Red so I painted this one up a bit for them. Since I couldn't find the same Barrel holder and Tank holder brackets I used some alternate parts. (see pics in the other steps) and coated them with Perfomix's Plasti Dip.  I used Vaspar Plastic spray paint on the PVC pipe.

The question came up about linking this rack with another. I think if you replaced the two bottom 90 degree elbows on one side  with a 4 way connector (like we used in the top center if the rack) you should be able to connect another rack to this with two small straight pieces of pipe. 

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Longbow Paintball Gun

This was based on the longbow paintball gun, but as i only had one photo of it, i have changed a few things. Measurements may not be accurate. This model was designed by me. This design has been updated from my old one and it paintball gun stand measurements has a Co2 bottle and a new hand grip images of tennis shoes with spikes on bottom trigger as well as a new scope. About the Longbow: Designed for the one-shot, one-kill player, the Longbow Sniper takes accuracy and stealth to a whole new level. Built on the back of the highest performance woods guns and pumps, the Longbow adds superior ergonomics to peak performance. The result: a paintball gun that looks, feels and shoots like a sniper gun should. The Longbow system is completely modular – allowing you to mix and match Longbow components with other performance parts to create your own perfect sniper solution. The sleek lines of the Longbow Sniper start with the Longbow Magazine System. Through a revolutionary detachable, horizontal clip, the Longbow requires no hopper. Twenty-one paintballs stand ready to spring-feed into your breach. This leaves your sniper rifle light, lean and low profile, paintball gun stand measurements. Best of all, you will finally enjoy an uncluttered sight picture with the scope of your choice. The Longbow system allows you to paintball gun stand measurements additional loaded magazines that can be instantly swapped out with the push of a button. #accurate #ball #battle #bow #co2 #gun #hopper #long #longbow #paint #paintball #rifle #scope #sniper #stock #war

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Paintball marker

Air gun used in the shooting sport of paintball

A paintball marker and related equipment, including ammunition and a protective mask

A paintball marker, also known as a paintball gun, paint gun, paintball gun stand measurements, or simply marker, is an air gun used in the shooting sport of paintball, paintball gun stand measurements, and the main piece of paintball equipment. Paintball markers use compressed gas, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed air (HPA), paintball gun stand measurements, to propel dye-filled gel capsules called paintballs through the barrel and quickly strike a target. The term "marker" is derived from its original use as a tool for forestry personnel to mark trees and ranchers to mark wandering cattle.[1][2]

The muzzle velocity of paintball markers is approximately 90&#;m/s (&#;ft/s); most paintball fields restrict speed to &#;ft/s,[3] and small indoor fields may further restrict it down to &#;ft/s.[4] While greater muzzle velocity is possible, it has been ruled unsafe for use on most commercial paintball fields.[5]

Most paintball markers can be disassembled into four main components: the body, loader, barrel, and air tank.

Marker types[edit]

Paintball markers fall into two main categories in terms of mechanism – mechanical paintball gun stand measurements electropneumatic.

Mechanically operated[edit]

Spyder VS2 Paintball Marker

Mechanically operated paintball markers operate using solely mechanical means, and as such do not use electro-pneumatic solenoids controlled by an electronic board to fire.

There five main methods of mechanical operation:

Pump or Bolt Action: the mechanism of the marker must be manually reset in between each shot, similar to pump-action shotguns and bolt-action rifles. Markers of this type are the oldest used in the sport as the first ever game of paintball was played using the bolt-action Nelspot pistol.[6] There are two main patterns of internals upon which most pump- paintball gun stand measurements bolt-action markers operate:

  • Sheridan Valve: Named after the Sheridan series of markers which first employed this design, markers which employ this mechanism have the bolt which loads the paintball is located in a separate tube from the hammer and valve. To cock the mechanism, the bolt is pulled backwards thus opening the breech and loading a paintball. Doing so also pulls the hammer backwards against the main spring, which is then held back by a sear connected to the trigger. The bolt is then pushed forward, which loads the paintball into the barrel and the marker is ready to fire. Pulling the trigger releases the hammer which is propelled forward by the main spring, hitting the valve pin and opening the valve which allows compressed gas to flow from the valve chamber into the barrel chamber thus propelling the loaded paintball forward and out of the barrel. The valve spring then closes the valve with the hammer still resting on the valve pin, after which this cycle must be repeated in order to fire another paintball. Notable examples of markers which operate in this way include the Sheridan K2, the Worr Games Products Sniper and the Chipley Custom Machine S6.
  • Nelson Valve: Named after the Nelson Paint Company whose marker, the Nelspotfirst employed this mechanism. In such markers the bolt, hammer and valve are all located in the same tube. To cock the mechanism, the bolt is pulled back against the main spring to allow a paintball to fall into the breach, at which point the sear latches the hammer to the bolt with the compressed main spring in between them. The bolt and attached hammer are then pushed forward to close the breach and load the paintball into the barrel, at which point the sear can be engaged by the trigger and the marker is ready to fire, paintball gun stand measurements. Pulling the trigger disengages the sear from paintball gun stand measurements bolt, allowing the main spring to propel the hammer rearwards onto the powertube, thus opening the valve and allowing compressed gases to flow from the valve chamber to the barrel through the powertube and bolt which propel the loaded paintball forward. The valve is then closed by the valve spring and the marker is ready to be re-cocked for the next shot. Notable examples of markers which employ this mechanism are the Nelson Nelspotthe CCI Phantom and the Redux.
  • Sterling "Hybrid" Valve: A variation or hybrid of these two methods of operation has been employed in the design of the Arrow Precision Sterling, wherein the bolt is located in a separate tube, as in a Sheridan valved marker, the hammer latches to a carrier similar to how it would to the bolt in a Nelson valve design, and when release it hits a Sheridan styled pin valve. There is significant debate as to what type of operations the Sterling paintball gun stand measurements, as some consider it to be a hybrid between the two main designs, and others simply consider it to be paintball gun stand measurements stacked-tube Nelson.[7]

Double Action: the trigger mechanism of the marker both fires and resets the firing mechanism, similar to the way a double-action revolver operates. Examples include the Line SI Advantage, the NSG Splatmaster Rapide and the Brass Eagle Barracuda.

Throwback Semi-Auto: The mechanism of the marker is cycled using gasses released by the valve which reset the firing mechanism between each shot, similar to the way some semi-automatic rifles such as the AK operates. The internals of blow-back operated markers can be either inline, with the bolt, valve and hammer all aligned along the same axis such as the Tippman 98, or stacked tube with the bolt in a separate tube from the hammer and valve such as the King-man Spider.

Blow Forward Semi-Auto: The firing mechanism of the marker operates using the gases stored in the valve to cycle the bolt and fire the paintball, after which a spring resets the mechanism for the next shot. Notables examples include the Air-gun Designs Auto-mag, paintball gun stand measurements, Tippmann X-7 Phenom and the Tiberius Arms T8.

Pneumatically Operated Semi-Auto: a low pressure pneumatic piston controlled by a four-way valve connected to the trigger resets the firing mechanism in between shots, and can be thought of as semi-auto conversions of markers which would otherwise be pump or bolt action. Notable examples include the WGP Autococker, the Palmer's Pursuit Shop Blazer and Typhoon.

Electropneumatically operated[edit]

In electromagnetic designs, the trigger, instead of being mechanically linked to the action of the marker, simply activates an electronic micro-switch (or more recently, a magnetic or optical sensor). That information is passed through control circuitry to a computer-controlled solenoid valve which can open and close very quickly and precisely, allowing gas to move paintball gun stand measurements or out of various pressure chambers in the marker to move the bolt and fire the paintball. This disconnect of the trigger from the action allows electronic trigger pulls to be very short in length and very lightweight (similar to a mouse click; the mechanisms are virtually identical), which dramatically increases rate-of-fire over a fully mechanical design. Solenoid-controlled gas valve designs also allow for reduced weight of internal parts, which both lightens overall weight and reduces the time it takes for the marker to cycle through firing paintball gun stand measurements single paintball.[citation needed]

Each branch favors a different aesthetic and values different aspects of marker design.[citation needed]

Marker body[edit]

A player using a Spyder paintball marker

Most of the marker's functions and aesthetic features are contained in its body, which contains the main components of the firing mechanism: the trigger frame, bolt and valve. Most paintball gun stand measurements marker bodies are constructed from aluminium to reduce the marker's weight, and feature custom milling and color anodizing.

External design[edit]

The largest external and ergonomic difference in marker bodies is in the trigger and barrel position, paintball gun stand measurements. Designers of expensive models attempt to position the trigger frame forward towards the center, or slightly forward of center of the body on speed-ball-oriented markers. This allows the HPA tank to be mounted in a position allowing compactness and balance without requiring any additional modifications that allow the tank to fall down and forwards, paintball gun stand measurements. Such aftermarket "drop forwards", may create a larger gun profile, which can result in eliminations due to hopper hits. Users often modify less expensive markers to allow a similar mode of operation, albeit by sacrificing a low profile. Although this is not important in games where equipment hits are not counted, in most games, including woodsball games, hopper hits are counted as an elimination. Some markers mount the barrel farther back paintball gun stand measurements the gun body to preserve a compact design, sacrificing the positioning of the trigger forward on the marker body whole paintball gun body should have to clean properly for its better response

Paintball markers are also categorized to a lesser extent by which play style of paintball in which they are intended for use – sporting paintball such as Speedball and Stock Class Paintball, or military simulation style games such as Woodsball.

Trigger frame[edit]

Triggers are the player's primary means of interacting with the marker. The amount of force required to fire the marker, as well as the distance the trigger travels before actuating, called the throw, has a marked effect upon the player's ability to achieve high rates of fire. Many markers, paintball gun stand measurements, especially higher priced markers, use electronic trigger frames with a variety of sensing methods, including micro-switches, hall effect sensors or break-beam infra-red switches, paintball gun stand measurements. These triggers have short throws, allowing a high rate of fire. Non-electronic markers sometimes use carefully set pneumatic to achieve a light and short trigger pull.

The trigger frame on non-electronic mechanical markers simply use a series of springs and levers to drop a sear, which propels the hammer in the body forward. On electronic markers, paintball gun stand measurements, the trigger frame houses the electronics that control the solenoid, as well as features such as ball detection systems. Upgraded circuit boards that add improved features are available.

Bolt and valve assembly[edit]

The bolt and valve assembly is the mechanism which fires the marker. The valve is a mechanical switch that controls whether or not the marker is firing. The bolt directs the flow of air and controls the entry of paintballs into the chamber. The bolt and valve may be separate components, as in many blowback and poppet-based electromagnetic markers. Alternatively, the valve may be built into the bolt, as in spool-valve electromagnetic markers.

A typical paintball gun in a state of complete youth indoor field hockey shoes (except for trigger workings).

Most modern markers have an open bolt design. When the marker is at rest, the bolt is in the "back" position, and the firing chamber is exposed to the stack of paintballs being fed by the loader. Some markers have closed bolt designs; in the rest position, the bolt, and paintball to be fired, are forward and the feed stack is closed off from the chamber. Closed bolt markers were thought to be more accurate because there is no reciprocating mass when the marker is fired. Paintball gun stand measurements, tests have shown that the position of the bolt has little effect on a marker's accuracy.[8]

Bolt and valve in mechanical markers[edit]

The majority of mechanical markers employ a simple blowback design utilizing a poppet valve (also known as a "pin valve"), which is opened when struck by a compression force, provided in the form of a hammer propelled by a spring. This type of marker generally uses a "stacked tube" design, in which the valve and hammer is contained in the lower tube, while the bolt, which is connected to the hammer, is in the upper tube, paintball gun stand measurements.

When the hammer is pulled backwards the internal spring compresses, exerting exponential pressure against the hammer's continued backwards motion. As the hammer and spring mechanism reaches the far end of its backwards range of travel, it is caught and locked in place by a metal catching device known as the sear. The sear holds the hammer in place, allowing the kinetic energy of the bolt's forward motion to be released whenever the sear is depressed. As the trigger is pulled, the sear becomes depressed and allows the hammer to be propelled forward by the spring. The hammer collides with the valve releasing gas from the external pressurized tank into the internal bolt chamber. The ensuing burst of gas channels out the front end of the bolt, propelling the paintball down the barrel. The rest of the gas pushes backwards on the hammer, pushing both it and the bolt backwards until the mechanism is once again caught on the sear. Once caught, the hammer is ready to repeat the blowback process. In cases where the pressure from the storage vessel drops under the minimum required to complete the action's cycle, the marker may "runaway" firing rapidly without additional trigger pulls required.

Poppet valves are easy to replace and require little maintenance. The downside to this design, paintball gun stand measurements, however, is its high operating pressure, which leads to a larger recoil and less accuracy.[citation needed] Some markers have a separate firing and recocking sequence, which decreases the recoil caused by the cycling of the hammer.[citation needed] Markers with a hammer have a firing delay when compared to a full electropneumatic.[citation needed]

Some markers are a hybrid of mechanical and electronic features. In these markers, the hammer and spring continues to activate the valve, but the hammer is released by a solenoid in an electronic trigger frame.

Bolt and valve in electropneumatic markers[edit]

Instead of the spring and hammer used to actuate the valve and cycle the bolt assembly in mechanical markers, paintball gun stand measurements, electropneumatic markers use the rerouting of air to different locations in the marker. This paintball gun stand measurements is controlled by a solenoid that is activated by the trigger. The two types of bolt and valve mechanisms in electropneumatic markers are the poppet-valve and spool-valve.

Poppet-valve-based electropneumatic markers are very similar to mechanical blowback markers. These have a stacked-tube construction, built around a poppet valve, that paintball gun stand measurements opened when struck by a force. Whereas mechanical markers provide that force with a paintball gun stand measurements propelled by a spring, the valve in poppet-valve markers are activated by a pneumatic ram. The bolt is connected to the ram. Poppet-valve markers azbn baseball several disadvantages when compared to spool valves: external moving parts, higher pressure required for poppet to seal, a reciprocating mass and a louder firing signature. However, they are also generally more gas efficient than spool-valve models because the poppet valve opens rapidly and dumps air into the firing chamber faster. Examples of markers that utilize this mechanism are the WDP Angel, Planet Eclipse Ego, Bob Long Intimidator, and Bushmaster.[9]

In Spool-valve-based electropneumatic markers, the bolt also acts as the valve. This eliminates the need for a stacked tube construction; spool valve markers have a more compact profile. Instead of a cycling hammer or ram that strikes a pin valve, the movement of the bolt is controlled by the routing of air into small chambers in front of or behind the bolt. An air reservoir behind the bolt contains the air that is to fire the paintball. When the marker is at rest, paintball gun stand measurements, air is routed to the front of the bolt to prevent the air in the reservoir from escaping. In an "unbalanced spool valve" design, when the trigger is pulled, that air is exhausted from the marker, allowing the air in the reservoir to push the bolt paintball gun stand measurements. In a "balanced spool valve" design, the air in the reservoir cannot force the bolt open; instead, the air from the front of the bolt is rerouted to a small chamber behind the bolt, separate from the reservoir, which then pushes the bolt forward. In either case, the movement of the bolt forward exposes pathways in the bolt or the marker that allow the air in the reservoir behind the bolt to surge forward and fire the paintball. Afterwards, airflow to the front of the bolt is restored, pushing the bolt back into its resting position.

A typical spool valve has at least one O-ring that undergoes a shear and compression duty cycle for every shot, paintball gun stand measurements, leading to faster wear and less reliability. Additionally, smaller valve openings and longer opening times makes them less gas efficient than their poppet-valve counterparts. Since spool-valve markers have reduced reciprocating mass, and can be operated at lower pressures, they have less recoil and a reduced sound signature. Examples of markers that utilize this mechanism are the Dye Matrix, Smart Parts Shocker, Paintball gun stand measurements Parts Ion, and the MacDev Clone.[10]

Tuning the bolt and valve system[edit]

In mechanical and poppet-based electropneumatic markers, the valve is usually designed to accommodate a specific operating pressure. Low pressure valves provide quieter operation and increased gas efficiency when tuned properly. However, excessively low pressure can decrease gas efficiency as dramatically as excessively high pressure.

Additionally, the valve must be set to release enough air to fire the paintball. If the valve is not tuned properly, insufficient air to fire the paintball may reach the bolt. This phenomenon, paintball gun stand measurements, known as "shoot-down", causes fired paintballs to gradually lose range, and can also occur at high rates of fire. Some markers have integral or external chambers, called low-pressure chambers, which hold a large volume of gas behind the valve to prevent shoot-down.

Tuning can also prevent air blowing up the feed tube upon firing, which disrupts the feeding of paintballs into the marker.

Loaders[edit]

Loaders, commonly known as hoppers, hold paintballs for the marker to fire. The main types are gravity feed, agitating and force-feed. Stick feeds are also used to hold paintballs, although they are not considered to be "hoppers".

While agitating and force-feed hoppers facilitate a higher bowling alley in alpharetta ga of fire, they are subject to battery failure, as well as degradation if they come into contact with moisture. Such hoppers which are not fitted with photoreceptors are prone to problems with ball breaks. When a paintball paintball gun stand measurements paint into the hopper from a break in the hopper, the gelatin shells of the paintballs can deteriorate, causing them to stick together as well as jam in the barrel.

Stick feed[edit]

Stick feeds are mainly used on pump and stock-class markers. They consist of simple tubes that hold between ten and twenty paintballs. Stick feeds are usually parallel to the barrel; player must tip the marker to load the next paintball. Some stick feeds are vertical, paintball gun stand measurements, or at an incline to facilitate gravity feeding, though this contravenes accepted stock-class guidelines.

Gravity feed[edit]

Gravity feed is the simplest and cheapest form of hopper available. Gravity feed hoppers consist of a large container and a feed tube molded into the bottom. Paintballs roll down the sloped sides, through the tube paintball gun stand measurements into the marker. These hoppers have a maximum rate of balls per second[citation needed]. Gravity feed hoppers are very cheap, since they are made of only a shell and a lid, but can become jammed easily as paintballs paintball gun stand measurements above the tube. Rocking the marker (and hopper) occasionally can prevent the paintballs from jamming in the hopper.

This problem is exacerbated when using a fully electronic marker. Most mechanical markers use a blowback system for recocking, or other methods where a large reciprocating mass is involved. This will shake the balls in the hopper slightly, facilitating gravity feed. A marker with both electronically controlled recocking and firing may exhibit no shake whatsoever while operating. Because of this, small packs in the hopper are not broken up and feeding problems result.

There are also loaders that resemble military sights that mimic an ACOG or a Red Dot sight, with 20 paintballs capacity at 10 balls per second. Used normally in milsim events or low capacity (lowcap) events (for e.g.: each player can use a maximum of 50 paintballs), paintball gun stand measurements.

Agitating[edit]

Agitating hoppers use a propeller, spinning inside the container, to agitate the paintballs. This prevents them from jamming at the feed neck, allowing them to feed more rapidly than gravity feeds. Older tournament-level hoppers are of the agitating type, since the higher rate of fire requires a reliable hopper.

There are two types of agitating hoppers: those with sensors – called "eyes" – and those without. The eyes consist of a LED (light emitting diode) and a photodetector, typically a phototransistor or photodiode, inside the neck or tube of the hopper, to detect the presence of a ball. In a hopper, the eyes detect when a ball is absent, causing it to turn. Agitating hoppers without eyes will quickly deplete batteries and may bend or dent paintballs, causing a short, less air efficient, skew shot. Agitating paintball gun stand measurements with eyes will only spin in the absence of a ball, preventing damage and prolonging battery life.

A third type of agitating hopper, the Cyclone Feed System manufactured by Tippmann, re-routes gas to agitate the feeding mechanism. It does not need batteries to operate.

Force-feed[edit]

Force-feed hoppers use an impeller to capture paintballs and force them into the marker. The impeller is either spring-loaded or powered by a belt system, allowing it to maintain constant pressure on the stack of paintballs in the feed tube. This allows force-feed hoppers to feed paintballs at a rate exceeding 50 balls per second, since the mechanism does not rely on gravity. Force-feed hoppers are the dominant type used in tournaments, being the only type of loader paintball gun stand measurements of maintaining the high rate of fire of electropneumatic markers.

Some markers use force-fed loaders shaped as firearms magazines, paintball gun stand measurements. These are preferred when a low profile is required, as in woodsball sniper positions. Even more unusual are fully contained magazines, incorporating both a source of propellant gas and force-fed paintballs.

The newest type of force feed hoppers communicate wirelessly with the marker's electronics using radio frequency. This allows the hopper to begin feeding paintballs before the pneumatic system of the marker has begun cycling the next shot. This system almost totally eliminates mis-feeds and can increase the speed of the loader and the battery life because the loader is only in operation when the marker is preparing to fire.

Propellant system[edit]

Main article: Paintball equipment §&#;Propellants

The tank holds compressed gas, which is used to propel the paintballs through the marker barrel. The tank is usually filled with carbon dioxide or compressed air. High Pressure Air (HPA) is also known as "nitrogen", as air is 78% nitrogen, or because these systems can be filled with industrial nitrogen. Due to the instabilities of carbon dioxide, HPA tanks are required for consistent velocity. Other propulsion methods include the combustion of small quantities of propane or electromechanically operated spring-plunger combinations similar to that used in an airsoft gun.

Carbon dioxide[edit]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a propellant used in paintball, especially in inexpensive markers. It is usually available in a 12&#;gram powerlet, mainly used in stock paintball and in paintball pistols, or a tank. The capacity of a carbon dioxide tank is measured in ounces of liquid and it is filled with liquid CO2, at room temperatures the vapour pressure is about 5, kilopascals (&#;psi).

The CO2 liquid must vaporize into a gas before it can be used. This causes problems such as inconsistent velocity. Cold weather can cause problems with this system, reducing the vapour pressure and increasing paintball gun stand measurements chance for liquefied gas to be drawn into the marker. The low-temperature liquid can damage the internal mechanisms. Anti-siphon tanks have a tube inside the cylinder, which is bent to prevent liquid carbon dioxide from being drawn into the gun.

On the other hand, a number of paintguns were designed with specific valves to operate on liquid CO2, including some early Tippmann models and the Mega-Z from Montneel – thus solving the problem caused by phase changes.[11] Siphon equipped CO2 tanks are easily identified by the clunking sound their weight makes when the tank is tipped.

After many years of use, Carbon dioxide has almost been universally replaced with High Pressure Air systems (see below)

High-pressure air[edit]

High-pressure air, compressed air or nitrogen, is stored in the tank at a very high pressure, typically 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi). Output is controlled with an attached regulator, regulating the pressure between 1,&#;kPa (&#;psi) and 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi), depending on the type of tank. The advantage of using regulated HPA over carbon dioxide (CO2) is pressure consistency and temperature stability where CO2 reacts to temperature changes causing inaccuracy and freezing during heavy use. The most popular tank size is 1, cubic centimetres (67&#;cu&#;in) at 31,&#;kPa (4,&#;psi) providing – shots.

HPA tanks are more expensive because they must accommodate very high pressures. They are manufactured as steel, aluminium or wrapped carbon fiber tanks, the latter being the most expensive and most lightweight. Most players with electronic markers use HPA because if CO2 is used, the marker's electronic Solenoid valve can be damaged if liquid CO2 enters it.

Users are warned not put any type of lubricant in the 'fill nipple' port of a HPA tank, as petroleum may burn when subjected to highly compressed air, causing an explosion, like in a diesel engine, paintball gun stand measurements.

Propane[edit]

A far less common propellant is propane, featured only in the Tippmann C3. Rather than simply releasing gas as in high-pressure air and CO2 markers, the propane is ignited in a combustion chamber, increasing pressure and opening a valve that lets the expanding gas propel the paintball. Sevierville little league football are a number of advantages, mainly shots per tank, ranging from 30, to 50, shots (depending on the size of the tank) as opposed to the typical to shots that are paintball gun stand measurements with High Pressure Air or CO2 tanks. Another advantage includes availability, as propane is readily available in many stores, whereas CO2 and High Pressure Air are most commonly filled from compressors or pre-filled tanks, which are less common. It can also be considered safer too, because a typical high-pressure air tank holds air at 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi), and a CO2 tank at 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi), but propane is stored at 2,&#;kPa (&#;psi).

However, propane produces heat, which (when firing for an extended period at high rates of fire) can cause burns if improperly handled. It can also be a fire hazard: the Tippmann C3 releases small amounts of flames from the vents in the combustion chamber and out of the barrel when firing. If a marker develops a leak from improper maintenance, it could cause a fire.

Gas regulation[edit]

Marker systems have a variety of regulator configurations, ranging from completely unregulated to high-end systems using four regulators, some with multiple stages, paintball gun stand measurements.

The regulator system affects both the accuracy and the firing velocity. Carbon dioxide regulators must also prevent liquid gas from entering the marker and expanding, causing a dangerous surge in velocity. Regulators used with carbon dioxide often sacrifice throughput and accuracy to ensure the marker operates safely. HPA-only regulators tend to have an extremely high throughput and are designed to ensure uniform pressure between shots to ensure marker accuracy at high rates of fire.

Tournament markers usually are equipped with two regulators, and another on the tank, each with a specific function. The tank regulator decreases the pressure of air from 21,–31,&#;kPa (3,–4,&#;psi) to 4,–5,&#;kPa (–&#;psi). A second regulator is used to further reduce this pressure to near the firing pressure. This reduction allows for greater consistency. The air is then supplied to a regulator on the marker body, where the final output pressure is selected. This can be between 5,&#;kPa (&#;psi) for entirely unregulated carbon dioxide markers to approximately 1,&#;kPa (&#;psi) for extremely low pressure markers. After the firing pressure is decided, tournament-oriented markers use another regulator to supply gas to a separate pneumatic system, to power any other functions, such as bolt movement. This is an extremely low volume, extremely low pressure regulator, usually under &#;kPa (&#;psi).

Barrels[edit]

The marker's barrel directs the paintball and controls the release of the gas pocket behind it. Several different bore sizes are made, to fit different sizes of paintball, and there are many lengths and styles. Most modern paintball markers have barrels that screw into the front receiver. Older types slide the barrel on and screw it in place. Barrel threading must be matched to that of the marker. Common threads are: Angel, Autococker, Impulse/Ion, Shocker, Spyder, A-5, and 98 Custom.

Barrels are manufactured in three basic configurations: one piece, two piece and three piece. A barrel with interchangeable bores, with either two or three piece, is called a barrel system, rather than a two-piece or three-piece barrel. This prevents confusion, as many two-piece barrel systems paintball gun stand measurements not use an interchangeable bore system.

One piece barrels paintball gun stand measurements machined from a single piece of material, usually aluminium, but stainless steel has historically been popular. Paintballs can range from to caliber (–&#;mm), and barrels are made to chandler cooper basketball these diameters. Some one piece michigan bulldogs softball have a stepped bore that increases from their rated bore size to around caliber (&#;mm) after 8 inches (&#;mm). One-piece barrels are generally less expensive to produce and therefore to purchase, paintball gun stand measurements, but if a different bore size is desired (for a closer fit to the size of a given brand or batch of paintballs) an entirely new barrel is required. The use of a single material for the entire barrel means that disadvantages of certain materials, such as durability (aluminum) or weight (stainless steel), cannot be mitigated.

Two piece barrels consist of a front and back. The back attaches to the marker and is machined with a specified bore between and caliber (–&#;mm). The front makes up the rest of the length and contains the porting. Fronts usually have a larger bore than the back. The design of a two-piece barrel allows for the use of more than one back with a front, to change the effective bore size of the barrel without changing the entire barrel, paintball gun stand measurements. It also allows for the back to be made of a different material, or be a different color, than the front, allowing aesthetic and performance customizations.

Three-piece barrels have a single back. A series of inserts, or sleeves, with differing bores are inserted into the back. The front is attached to keep the sleeve in place. Sleeves are generally offered in either aluminium or stainless steel. Aluminium sleeves are light but can be dented or scratched easily; stainless steel versions are more resilient but carry a weight penalty. The user needs only one set of sleeves and a back for each marker. Front sections, which adjust the length of the barrel, can be interchanged. This type offers the widest selection of barrel diameters, usually (), paintball gun stand measurements, (), (), (), and up to caliber (&#;mm).

Length[edit]

Typical barrels are between 76&#;mm (&#;in) and &#;mm (21&#;in) long, although custom barrels may be up to &#;mm (36&#;in) long. Longer barrels are usually quieter than shorter barrels, allowing excess gas to escape slowly. Players usually choose a barrel length between &#;mm (12&#;in) and &#;mm (16&#;in), as a compromise between accuracy, range, and portability. Many players favor longer barrels as they permit them to push aside the large inflatable bunkers commonly used in paintball tournaments while still staying behind cover.

Most barrels are ported or vented, which means that holes are drilled into the front of the barrel allowing the propellant to dissipate slowly, making the marker quieter. Porting in the first &#;mm (&#;in) of the barrel length decreases a marker's gas efficiency. For example, if a millimetre (16&#;in) barrel has large porting that starts &#;mm (&#;in) past the threads, the ball must travel the other millimetres (&#;in) largely on its own momentum, losing speed (due to friction) rather than gaining more speed from continued air pressure. Compensating for that requires a larger burst of gas, decreasing efficiency. Porting too early can also dramatically increase noise, as the gas is still under a significant amount of pressure.

Bore[edit]

The bore is the interior diameter of the barrel. The bore must properly match the type of paint being fired, the most critical aspect of a barrel. A paintball gun stand measurements selection will result in velocity variations, which causes difficulty in maintaining a close match to field velocity limits and in extreme cases it can affect accuracy. Two and three-piece barrels let the barrel bore be matched to the paint diameter without needing new barrels. Correct matching is especially important in closed-bolt markers that lack ball detents because the ball will roll down, and potentially out of, the barrel. This results in either a dry fire in the event that the ball fell out of the barrel, or a lower velocity shot.

It has been proven that matching bore to paintball size is less efficient. Underboring (barrel is bored smaller than paint diameter) results in good shot consistency and efficiency. Overboring (barrel is bored bigger than paint diameter) results in good shot consistency but worse efficiency. Paint to barrel matching results in no increase in paintball gun stand measurements consistency or efficiency.[12]

Firing and trigger modes[edit]

Since the advent of semi-automatic markers in the early s, both insurance and competitive rules have specified that markers must be semi-automatic only; only one paintball may be fired per trigger pull. While this was a perfectly clear definition when markers were all based on mechanical and pneumatic designs, the introduction of electronically controlled markers in the late s meant that technology had allowed for easy circumvention of this rule. Electronic markers are often controlled by a programmable microcontroller, on which any software might be installed. For example, software may allow the marker to fire more than once per trigger pull, called shot ramping.

Velocity ramping is an electronic firing mode where a consistent, fully automatic firing rate will be triggered as long as the player maintains a low rate of trigger pulls per second.

Pump action[edit]

Pump action markers must be manually re-cocked after every shot, much like a pump action shotgun.

Some pump action paintball markers such as the Sterling and many Nelson-based markers like the PMI Tracer and CCI Phantom offer slam-fire action, also known as an auto-trigger, which occurs when the trigger is squeezed and the marker fires with every ensuing recocking of the marker via the pump.[13]

Semi-automatic[edit]

A paintball marker that reloads itself with the next load from the magazine after one shot is called semi-automatic. Semi-automatic markers use a variety of designs to automatically cycle a bolt and load a new paintball into the chamber with each trigger pull, paintball gun stand measurements. This frees the player from manually pumping the marker, allowing him or her to increase the rate-of-fire. Semi-automatic markers may have a mechanical trigger or an electronic trigger frames. An electronic trigger frame typically has a lighter trigger pull and less space between the trigger and the pressure point, allowing the player to shoot at higher rates of fire. Such frames are commonly available as upgrades to fully mechanical markers, or are integrated into the design of electropneumatic markers.

With the popularity of electronic trigger frames allowing players with such frames to achieve very high rates of fire, tournament leagues began placing limits on the maximum rate of fire of electronic markers used in their events. Manufacturers also often place their own limit on the maximum rate of fire the marker will support, to ensure reliable cycling. Such limits are called caps; tournament caps generally range from 12 to 15 balls per second, while mechanical caps vary according to the design of the marker and the firmware used. If such a cap is enforced, the marker will prevent a ball being fired less than westchester renegades baseball certain time after the last one, the time delay resulting in the desired maximum rate of fire. A trigger pull occurring before this time has elapsed will be "queued", and the marker will fire again after the delay, but most markers will limit the number of shots that can be "queued" to avoid the marker firing a number of shots after the trigger was last pulled, a so-called "runaway marker".

Fully automatic[edit]

Fully automatic markers fire continually when the trigger is pressed. The Tippmann Paintball gun stand measurements 60 was the first fully automatic paintball marker. Most electropneumatic paintball guns feature this mode. The fully automatic mode can paintball gun stand measurements added to any electropneumatic marker by installing a customized logic board, or buying a completely new electronic trigger frame.

Similarly, markers can be equipped with burst paintball gun stand measurements. Ranging from between three and nine shot bursts, these modes allow the player to take accurate shots with a quick pull of the trigger, using more than one ball to increase their chances of hitting the target. In burst mode, the rate of fire can equal that of the fully automatic mode, which is useful in close range situations.

Ramping[edit]

Ramping is a feature in some electronic markers that automatically changes the mode of fire from semi-automatic to fully automatic under certain conditions;[14] normally upon a certain number of rapid shots being fired or a minimum rate of fire achieved and sustained. Ramping can be difficult to detect because ramping modes may be inconsistently used. Ramping modes can further be hidden in the software, ensuring that a marker will fire in a legal, semi-auto mode when being tested, paintball gun stand measurements, but an illegal ramping mode may be engaged by the player under certain conditions.

Some leagues allow a specific ramping mode to prevent problems with enforcement, paintball gun stand measurements to provide a more level playing field with regard to technical skill and marker quality (and price). The arkansas tech university volleyball camp specifies a minimum time between shots resulting in a maximum rate of fire, and that a certain number of semi-automatic shots must be fired before ramping may engage. With players consistently using a standard ramping mode, players using a different mode are more easily detected.

The rate of fire is enforced by a "PACT" timer, a standard firearms timing device that measures the time between shots, paintball gun stand measurements. The following are common league-specific ramping modes, preset in the marker's firmware:

  • PSP Ramping – Ramping begins after 3 shots; the player must maintain at least one pull per second to achieve/maintain ramping. The marker may then fire up to (and no more than) three balls per trigger pull in a "burst" fashion. Rate of fire cannot exceed balls per second (as of ), even if the player pulls the trigger 5 times per second or faster.
  • NXL Ramping – Ramping begins after three shots; the player needs only to hold down the trigger to maintain fully automatic fire. Rate of fire cannot exceed 15&#;balls per second. Firing must cease immediately upon the trigger being released.
  • Millennium Ramping – Ramping begins after six trigger pulls at a minimum rate of pulls per second; the player must maintain trigger pulls per second to maintain ramping. Rate of fire cannot exceed balls per second, paintball gun stand measurements. When the player ceases to pull the trigger during ramping, no more than one extra ball may be fired after the last pull.

Safety[edit]

When paintballs hit an object at high speed they have the potential to cause damage; a paintball colliding with human skin, even protected by cloth, paintball gun stand measurements, may cause bruising or further tissue damage. However, the damage depends on the paintball's velocity, distance, its impact angle, whether it breaks, and which part of the body it hits, paintball gun stand measurements. Because of the potential for serious soft tissue damage, paintball players must wear a quality paintball mask to protect their eyes, mouth, and ears when barrel blocking devices are not preventing paintball markers from firing. A good paintball mask is one which has an anti-fog, dual-pane, scratch less, and UV coated lens. Before making a buying decision, the mask must be checked for its glasses comparability, internal space, and ventilation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"SPLAT!; South Sound Plays Host to Some of the Best in the World of Paintball". News Tribune, The. Archived from the original on July 15, Retrieved September 15,
  2. ^Gaines, Charles (December 6, ). "Who Thought This Was A Good Idea?". CNN. Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved 5 March
  3. ^paintball, David Muhlestein David Muhlestein is a; Mids, Woodsball Enthusiast Who Has Been Playing Since the; Equipment, Has Extensive Knowledge of Paintball. "Exactly How Fast Does a Paintball Gun Fire?", paintball gun stand measurements. LiveAbout. Retrieved
  4. ^"Paintball Safety Rules". LVL UP Sports Paintball Park. Retrieved
  5. ^"EMR PAINTBALL PARK &#; Scenario Paintball &#; Recball &#; Tournament Paintball &#; Castle Conquest &#; Paintball Safety". casinoextra.fr Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved paintball gun stand measurements Us &#; Nelson Paintball".
  6. ^casinoextra.fr
  7. ^"Where's the Bolt?". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  8. ^Maker Classification – Markers Using a Hammer, at casinoextra.fr
  9. ^Marker Classification – Marker Without a Hammer, at casinoextra.fr
  10. ^"WARPIG - World And Regional Paintball Information Guide: antisiphon". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  11. ^Barrel Test done paintball gun stand measurements PunkWorksPaintball casinoextra.fr?v=rDxWqM6WS9Q
  12. ^"Sterling STP Bronze manual"(PDF). Retrieved
  13. ^casinoextra.fr

External links[edit]

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]
paintball gun stand measurements

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