Indoor football goal

indoor football goal

Football Goal Set Children's Sports Toys Football Net With Soccer Pump DIY Indoor Outdoor Football Practice Family Games Sports. US $ US $ Indoor five a side football goals. Manufactured from epoxy powder coated steel in white. Supplied in pairs complete with nets. The goals have folding side. Designed For Children 18 months to 5 years old. Kids can also use as for indoor hockey net. Easy to assemble and take apart, portable design.

Indoor football goal - remarkable

Indoor five-a-side football goals

Indoor five a side football goals. Manufactured from epoxy powder coated steel in white. Supplied in pairs complete with nets.

The goals have folding side frames and retractable wheels to enable the goals to be moved easily to and from storage

Available in three standard dimensions:

  • m (8') long x m (4') high - for mini play
  • m (12') long x m (4') high - for junior / senior play - our most popular size for secondary schools, universities and leisure centres
  • m (16') long x m (4') high - for senior play - wider senior goals required by certain adult five a side teams, although most teams prever the m versions

Five a side goals must be secured when in use to prevent the goal toppling. We recommend either a wall or floor securing system which is available at additional cost - please contact us for details.

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

Indoor American football

Variation of gridiron football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas

Indoor American football, or arena football, is a variation of gridiron football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varying in details from league to league, the rules of indoor football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena. It is distinct from traditional American or Canadian football played in larger domed or open-air stadiums, although several early college football games contested on full-sized or nearly full-sized fields at Chicago Coliseum (s) and Atlantic City Convention Center (s and s) helped to show that football could be played as an indoor game.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The first demonstration of football on a small field was actually played outdoors at the original open-air Madison Square Garden.[1] Using nine-man sides, Pennsylvania defeated Rutgers at the annual meeting of the Amateur Athletic Union on January 16, [2]

The first documented indoor football game was an exhibition between the Springfield YMCA Training School and a Yale Senior Class team played on December 12, at Madison Square Garden II.[3]James Naismith scored a touchdown for Springfield, though Yale won the exhibition [3] The following day a second exhibition game was played, with Pennsylvania defeating Rutgers [4] The field at Madison Square Garden measured feet long and feet wide.[4]

The first documented indoor regulation football games were those played at the Chicago Coliseum in the late s. The first such game matched Michigan against Chicago on Thanksgiving Day The match was "the first collegiate game of football played under a roof."[5][6] Adding to the novelty, as daylight turned to darkness, the field inside the Coliseum was lit with electric lighting.[7] With seven acres of floor space, the sprawling Coliseum is believed to have not needed any compromises to accommodate an American football field. According to a newspaper account, the field grew dark in the second half, and play was halted for ten minutes to discuss whether play should continue. Play was resumed, and the lights were finally turned on after Michigan scored a touchdown.[5] The press proclaimed the experiment in indoor football to be a success:

One thing at least was settled by the game, and that is, that indoor football is literally and figuratively speaking a howling success. The men had no trouble in catching punts, and football was played on its merits, without the handicaps of a wet field or a strong wind. Toward the end of the second half it got very dark, and the spectators were treated to a novelty in the shape of football by electric light."[7]

Although both critically and commercially successful, the Coliseum was destroyed in a fire less than two years after its opening, and its replacement could not accommodate an American football field.

Later, at Madison Square Garden in and , there were games known as the "World Series of Pro Football." The games were played on a yard by yard dirt field but otherwise adhered to outdoor rules. Poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years.

The Chicago Bears of the National Football League hosted an experimental game against their crosstown rivals, the Cardinals, after the NFL season, at the indoor Chicago Stadium.[9] Two years later, poor weather conditions led to the Bears hosting the NFL Playoff Game against the Portsmouth Spartans (now the Detroit Lions) at the stadium.[10][11][9][12][13][14] A dirt and tanbark field measuring 80 yards long (60 yards plus two ten-yard end zones) and 45 yards wide was constructed on the arena's floor. The Chicago Stadium games were notable for introducing several rule changes, including the introduction of hash marks to keep play away from spectators who were seated next to the field (much like modern indoor football), while goal posts were moved to the goal line. To compensate for the smaller field, teams were "penalized" 20 yards upon crossing midfield. (The Bears' official Web site goes further and claims that field goals were outlawed for the game.)[15]

In , the Atlantic City Convention Center constructed a nearly full-size indoor football field, and used it for one to three games a year during the s; the stadium stopped hosting games in and did not resume hosting football games until In the s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small college teams, was contested at the convention center. The Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one (the Miss America Pageant, also held at the center, likewise began as an attempt to extend the season beyond Labor Day). The Atlantic Coast Football League played its inaugural championship game at the convention center in , but the game only drew 2, fans and the game would thereafter move to the home stadium of the team with the best regular season record. The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, which had been played at Municipal Stadium from &#;, was moved into the Convention Center in for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6, fans, though, and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, where it has remained.

Unlike modern indoor football, the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were essentially the same as in the standard outdoor game, with rules updated to deal with contingencies for what could happen indoors, such as a punt striking the ceiling. The end zones were slightly shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten (coincidentally, the eight-yard endzone length is the standard in modern indoor football).

[edit]

Main article: Arena Football League

An arena footballgoalpost structure featuring the rebound nets on either side of the uprights.

While several attempts to create a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first version to meet with relatively widespread success and acceptance was devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. He devised his game while watching indoor soccer, another game derived from a sport played outdoors. He worked on the game in the early s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional (spring-summer) season, was in operation in – When the USFL ceased operations, Foster saw his opportunity. He staged a "test" game in Rockford, Illinois in and put together a four-team league for a "demonstration season" in the spring of , with games televised on ESPN.

Foster had to adopt a field that would fit within the smaller playing surfaces found in most arenas and thus created a field that was identical in size to a standard North American ice hockey rink, by 85 feet (61&#;m ×&#;26&#;m). This resulted in the field being 50 yards long (half of the length of a standard American football field) with eight-yard end zones (which may, if necessary, be curved in the end zones as hockey rinks are), and the field being slightly over half as wide as a standard football field. Foster adopted short-pile artificial turfs (which were then standard) such as AstroTurf for the field because of its ability to be rolled up when the arena is being used for other sports.

Foster adopted a modified version of eight-man football. He also mandated a one-platoon system that required at least six players to play on both offensive and defensive downs. This had the added desirable effect of limiting team payrolls.

There were numerous other rules designed to help the offense and ensure high-scoring games:

  • punting is banned; a team not likely to get a first down may only attempt a field goal.
  • the placing of taut rebound nets at the ends of the playing surface alongside the goalposts. Kicked and passed balls bouncing off these nets remain in play. In the case of a pass, the ball is live only until it touches the ground, allowing for receptions and interceptions on the rebound. On an unsuccessful field goal attempt or kickoff, the ball remains in play unless it goes out of bounds or until the player recovering it is downed by contact or scores, so on kicking plays (except an extra point attempt) either team may attempt to gain possession of the ball and advance it, much as a blocked kick could be in the traditional outdoor game. Only kicked or passed balls touching the slack nets behind the goalposts are ruled dead at that point.

To further an offensive passing advantage over the defense, Foster also imposed strict restrictions on the defensive formation, mandating that all defenses were required to play a Monster formation with three defensive linemen, two linebackers, two cornerbacks, and one safety. Linebackers were not permitted to blitz and were required to stay in boxes behind the line of scrimmage, while defensive linemen were hindered by restrictions that prevented them from using certain techniques to penetrate the offensive line. Quarterbacks and placekickers were exempt from the one-platoon system, allowing two key scoring positions to be more specialized. The AFL also adopted the USFL's concept of playing in the late spring and summer, since this is when most hockey and basketball arenas have the fewest schedule conflicts (only competing with touring stadium rock concerts). The spring schedule has since been adopted by virtually all other professional indoor leagues as of

Within a year of the AFL kicking off, its first challenger, the World Indoor Football League formed. The WIFL planned to play a schedule with six teams beginning in summer of with its own set of indoor-inspired rules, including an unusual system that would have eight men on offense and seven men on defense. Despite having backing from former NFL players, veteran coaches, and singer John Mellencamp, the league canceled its season, folded half of its franchises (including Mellencamp's), and made an unsuccessful bid for the remaining three teams to join the AFL.

In , Foster patented the rules of arena football, meaning that only persons authorized by him could use his rules and his name for the sport. While the AFL asserted throughout the s that the patent covered virtually every aspect of the game (from the yard field to the eight-man format), a lawsuit (Arena Football League v. Professional Indoor Football League) established that the patent specifically covered the rebound net feature, meaning that competitors could not use this aspect of the rules.[16] However, under provisions of U.S. patent law, Foster's patent expired on March 27, , enabling competitors to use rebound nets (at least as originally envisioned, without other innovations that he may have patented).

The AFL signed a major network television broadcasting contract with NBC, and eventually launched an official minor league, af2, beginning in This effort basically served two purposes: one as a developmental league for the AFL, and as a place where former collegiate players could develop while at the same time learning and becoming accustomed to the unique arena rules, and secondly as a pre-emptive way of shutting out potential new indoor football competitors (this was especially important as the expiration of Foster's patent on the rebound nets approached). At times over forty teams participated in this league, almost uniformly in cities which also had minor league ice hockey teams and hence suitable arenas.

Shortly before the end of , the Arena Football League announced that it would not be playing a spring season. During the previous few years, the league administrators and team owners had allowed player salaries and other costs to rise to the point where the league and many of the teams were losing a substantial amount of money. Late in the summer of , with the team owners unable to agree on a plan for making the league viable again the AFL announced that it was folding, eventually putting its assets up in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy liquidation.

The developmental af2, however, played its season as scheduled. Most of the teams made a sustainable profit and the team owners were eager to see the league continue for another year. However, with the AFL owning % of the af2, it would fold if the AFL folded. At the end of the season, a gathering of af2 and remaining AFL team owners set out to form their own organization, originally known as Arena Football 1 (AF1). AF1 went on to purchase all assets of the original AFL and af2, except for a few team names and logos owned by outside parties, in a December bankruptcy auction. Shortly after the purchase, AF1 adopted the Arena Football League name, and the AFL relaunched in The "iron man" rule, requiring at least six of the eight players to play on both offense and defense, was dropped, but most other past AFL rules remained unchanged. The relaunched league saw franchises return and renewed interest, but by the end of the season, almost all of the league's teams had either folded or moved to other leagues, with only the Philadelphia Soul having existed prior to Five expansion teams, all in the Mid-Atlantic United States, were established over the next two years, before the league announced after the season that it was dissolving in a second Chapter 7 bankruptcy.

Other indoor leagues[edit]

An example of an indoor football field, lacking rebound nets.

Other indoor football leagues have been formed, without the use of the rebound nets at the ends of the field. Like the AFL, their playing seasons are entirely or primarily outside the traditional fall/early winter season of the outdoor sport so as not to be competing with it directly for fan support.

Since the first such league, the Professional Indoor Football League, began play in the , there has often been a pattern of instability. Each off-season has seen teams jumping from league to league. In addition, leagues have annually merged, changed names, and separated. The organization that was most recently known as American Indoor Football (AIF) went through three names and two ownership changes in its first three seasons. Several other indoor leagues have been announced without ever actually commencing play, or operating only briefly with a handful of teams. Some were claimed attempts to form a second "major" league of indoor football while others were strictly efforts to form a new "minor" league.

A few leagues have achieved a certain level of stability, however. The National Indoor Football League (NIFL) began in and was the most successful league in the early 's. The Indoor Football League (IFL) began in the autumn of when two already-established leagues (the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football) chose to merge into a single organization. The IFL's expansion model has been based less on establishing new teams and more on acquiring existing teams from other leagues. The IFL has 14 teams as of Other, regional leagues include Champions Indoor Football (CIF), the American Arena League (AAL) and National Arena League (NAL). Both CIF and the AAL were formed by mergers of existing leagues. The CIF was formed from a merger of the Champions Professional Indoor Football League and the Lone Star Football League in The AAL was formed in late as the combination of three leagues that each played one season: the Can-Am Indoor Football League, Arena Pro Football, and Supreme Indoor Football.

Fan Controlled Football launched in following an interactive format inspired by video games, with "power-ups" and fans voting on plays. It generally targeted a higher caliber of player than the typical indoor league, with outdoor football veterans such as Johnny Manziel, Robert Turbin, Quinton Flowers, Quinn Porter, Shawn Oakman and Josh Gordon playing in the league's inaugural season.

The best-known indoor women's football league is the Legends Football League (formerly known as the Lingerie Football League). Known for its scantily-clad players and its signature event, the Legends Cup (formerly Lingerie Bowl), the LFL played a variant of indoor rules with most of its games in indoor stadiums, although few teams experimented with playing in outdoor stadiums. The league's brief foray into Australia was played in outdoor stadiums; these teams nevertheless played under indoor football rules. All other women's leagues play on outdoor fields with outdoor rules; there have been several other attempts to form indoor women's football leagues, but none have made it to play.

Compensation[edit]

All current indoor football teams play at a minor league or semi-professional level. The average player's salary in the Arena Football League was US$1, per game in ; this is about one-quarter of the Canadian Football League (adjusted for inflation). Players in af2 were paid $ per game and the AIFA and IFL had per-game salaries of $ per game; the AFL paid $ per game for most players in , with that number rising to $ per game in (although players then had to pay for their own housing, which the league previously provided); starting quarterbacks receive a $ per game bonus.[17] As of , the IFL pays $$ per game, with a $25 bonus for each win.[18] FCF pays $ to $ a week.[19]

Connection to the NFL[edit]

Green Bay Packers head coach Matt LaFleur was a quarterback for the Omaha Beef and the Billings Outlaws in the National Indoor Football League (NIFL). Running back Fred Jackson rushed for over 1, yards as the starting running back for the Buffalo Bills, and his high quality play earned him a spot on USA Today's "All-Joe" Team. Jackson played the early part of his professional football career for the Sioux City Bandits (now of Champions Indoor Football) and Michael Lewis (wide receiver) played for the Louisiana Bayou Beast in and then with the New Orleans Saints. Probably the most notable player to come out of Arena football into the National Football League is Kurt Warner, MVP quarterback of the Super Bowl XXXIV champion ( game, season) St. Louis Rams, who had previously quarterbacked the former Iowa Barnstormers of the AFL. The National Football League removed a ban that had been in place on any of its owners owning teams in any other sort of football operation with respect to Arena football only, and several of them had bought or started Arena teams at one point. However, the NFL allowed to lapse an option it had negotiated allowing it to purchase up to 49% of Arena football, and as of early seemed to have backed away from any plan it may have had to use Arena football as a developmental league in any sort of "official" sense, perhaps in the interest of not undermining its then-existing "official" developmental league, NFL Europa.

Several NFL owners owned Arena Football League teams in their own cities prior to the league's bankruptcy. At the end of the season, Jerry Jones and the Dallas Desperados (who had similar colors and logos to the Dallas Cowboys), Arthur Blank's Georgia Force, and the Colorado Crush (whose shareholders included Broncos owner Pat Bowlen and Rams then-minority owner Stan Kroenke) were still in the league. San Francisco 49ers owner Denise DeBartolo York and the Washington Football Team owner Daniel Snyder had future expansion rights to their respective cities. Tom Benson's original New Orleans VooDoo and Bud Adams's Nashville Kats had already folded prior to the bankruptcy and none of the NFL owners with AFL franchises returned to the league after its reformation in , and most favored abolishing the league entirely.[20]

Two players and one owner with substantial contributions (at least the majority of one season) have reached the Pro Football Hall of Fame: inductee Kurt Warner played the first three seasons of his professional career in the AFL, inductee Terrell Owens played his last professional season with the Indoor Football League in , and the aforementioned Pat Bowlen was inducted into the Hall in

Dozens of former and current professional outdoor football players also have invested money into indoor football franchises.

Leagues[edit]

The following is a list of professional arena and indoor football leagues:

Current leagues[edit]

Defunct leagues[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"The Big Amateur Union Meeting, The Sun (New York)". Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers, Lib. of Congress. January 16,
  2. ^"College Notes, The Pennsylvanian". The Daily Pennsylvanian Digital Archives. January 23,
  3. ^ ab"Foot-ball at the S.I.A.C. Games, Yale Daily News". Yale Daily News Historical Archive. December 13,
  4. ^ ab"Pennsylvania, 20; Rutgers, 12, The Pennsylvanian". The Daily Pennsylvanian Digital Archives. December 18,
  5. ^ ab"CHICAGO WINS BY A POINT: University Team Defeats Michigan for the First Time; INDOOR PLAY PROVES A SUCCESS; Coliseum Utilized and Twenty Thousand In Attendance—Herschberger of the Home Eleven Kicks His Way Into Fame". Nebraska State Journal. November 27,
  6. ^"Football Played Indoors". The New York Times. November 27,
  7. ^ ab"THE FOOTBALL GAMES: Results on the Gridiron From Ocean to Ocean; INDOOR GAME AT CHICAGO; The University of Chicago Defeats the University of Michigan In a Hard Contest — Games Played at Other Points". Delphos Daily Herald. November 27,
  8. ^ ab"Bears vs. Spartans". Milwaukee Journal. United Press. December 18, p.&#;1B.
  9. ^Smith, Wilfrid (December 16, ). "Bears battle with Spartans moved indoors". Chicago Tribune. p.&#;
  10. ^"Bears, Spartans to play indoors". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. December 16, p.&#;7, part 2.
  11. ^"Pro gridders meet tonight in Windy City". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. December 18, p.&#;2, section 2.
  12. ^Dunkley, Charles W. (December 19, ). "Bears beat Spartans, ; win pro title". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. p.&#;
  13. ^Williams, Marty (January 15, ). "Today's game not first indoors". Daily News. Bowling Green, Ohio. (Dayton Daily News). p.&#;
  14. ^Mayer, Larry (March 1, ). "Bears played NFL's first indoor game". Chicago Bears. Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved March 1,
  15. ^U.S. Patent 4,, (filed September 30, ; parent application filed December 4, ; issued March 27, )
  16. ^DiPaola, Jerry (June 19, ). "AFL players score hefty raise in new CBA". Trib Total Media. Retrieved
  17. ^"Podyum Recruit The Pro Football Recruiting Platform". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  18. ^casinoextra.fr
  19. ^Hahn, John (). Who Really Killed the AFL?. OurSportsCentral.

External links[edit]

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

indoor soccer goal

1/6

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Product Name Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal material Steel pipe(powder coating)+Polyester PE//PP/PA size **cm Can be Customized Color Blue per your request Frame Steel pipe: Φmm TUBE Using life 20 years Certification CE,ISO OEM Provided MOQ 10pcs,small order is welcome here! payment term 30% T/T in advance, the balance against the copy of B/L by fax or email shipping port Yantian,other ports are also available sample time 10 working day delivery time 15~30days after receive the deposit Function Training or competition Detailed Images Packing & Delivery 1 pcs in a box ,carton size is *36*14 cm For small order/sample,we provide fast shipping by air like TNT,UPS,DHL,etc. ndoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Our Company

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indoor soccer goal

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Sets(Min. Order)

Product Indoor football goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal material Steel pipe(powder coating)+Polyester PE//PP/PA size **cm Can be Customized Color Blue per your request Frame Steel pipe: Φmm TUBE Using life 20 years Certification CE,ISO Indoor football goal Provided MOQ 10pcs,small order is welcome here! payment term 30% T/T in advance, the balance against the copy of B/L by fax or email shipping port Yantian,other ports are also available sample time 10 working day delivery time 15~30days after receive the deposit Function Training or competition Detailed Images Packing & Delivery 1 pcs in a box ,carton size is *36*14 cm For small order/sample,we provide fast shipping by air like TNT,UPS,DHL,etc. ndoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Indoor/outdoor Amusement Inflatable Soccer goal Football Goal Our Company

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Indoor five-a-side football goals

Indoor five a side football goals. Manufactured from epoxy powder coated steel in white. Supplied in pairs complete with nets.

The goals have folding side frames and retractable wheels to enable the goals to be moved easily to and from storage

Available in three standard dimensions:

  • m (8') long x m (4') high - for mini play
  • m (12') long x m (4') high - for junior / senior play - our most popular size for secondary schools, universities and leisure centres
  • m (16') long x m cody cummings football high - for senior play - wider senior goals required by certain adult five a side teams, although most teams prever the m versions

Five a side goals must be secured when in use to prevent the goal toppling. We recommend either a wall or floor securing system which is available at additional cost - please contact us for details.

Источник: [casinoextra.fr]
The Pro Football Recruiting Platform". casinoextra.fr. Retrieved
  • ^casinoextra.fr
  • ^Hahn, John (). Who Really Killed the AFL?. OurSportsCentral.
  • External links[edit]

    Источник: [casinoextra.fr]

    Indoor American football

    Variation of gridiron football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas

    Indoor American football, or arena football, is a variation of gridiron football played at ice hockey-sized indoor arenas. While varying in details from league to league, the rules of indoor football are designed to allow for play in a smaller arena. It is distinct from traditional American or Canadian football played in larger domed or open-air stadiums, indoor football goal, although several early college football games contested on full-sized or nearly full-sized fields at Chicago Coliseum (s) and Atlantic City Convention Center (s and s) helped to show that football could be played as an indoor game.

    History[edit]

    Early history[edit]

    The first demonstration of football on a small field was actually played outdoors at the original open-air Madison Square Garden.[1] Using nine-man sides, Pennsylvania defeated Rutgers at the annual meeting of the Amateur Athletic Union on January 16, [2]

    The first documented indoor football game was an exhibition between the Springfield YMCA Training School and a Yale Senior Class college baseball helmets played on December 12, at Madison Square Garden II.[3]James Naismith scored a touchdown for Springfield, though Yale won the exhibition [3] The following day a second exhibition game was played, with Pennsylvania defeating Rutgers [4] The field at Madison Square Garden measured feet long and feet wide.[4]

    The first documented indoor regulation football games were those played at the Chicago Coliseum in the late s. The first such game matched Michigan against Chicago on Thanksgiving Day The match was "the first collegiate game of football played under a roof."[5][6] Adding to the novelty, as daylight turned indoor football goal darkness, the field inside the Lifetime zenith 100 sit in kayak was lit with electric lighting.[7] With seven acres of floor space, the sprawling Coliseum is believed to have not needed any compromises indoor football goal accommodate an American football field. According to a newspaper account, the field grew dark in the second half, and play was halted for ten minutes to discuss whether play should continue. Play was resumed, and the lights were finally turned on after Michigan scored a touchdown.[5] The press proclaimed the experiment in indoor football to be a success:

    One thing at least was settled by the game, and that is, that indoor football is literally and figuratively speaking a howling success. The men had no trouble in catching kalmar vs aik football, and football was played on its merits, without the handicaps of a wet field or a strong wind. Toward the end of the second half it got very dark, and the spectators were treated to a novelty in the shape of football by electric light."[7]

    Although both critically and commercially successful, the Coliseum was destroyed in a fire less than two years after its opening, and its replacement could not accommodate an American football field.

    Later, at Madison Square Garden in andthere were games known as the "World Series of Pro Football." The games were played on a yard by yard dirt field but otherwise adhered to outdoor rules. Poor attendance led to the tournament being discontinued after two years.

    The Chicago Bears of the National Football League hosted an experimental game against their crosstown rivals, the Cardinals, after the NFL season, at the indoor Chicago Stadium.[9] Two years later, poor weather conditions led to the Bears hosting the NFL Playoff Game against psychedelic surf music Portsmouth Spartans (now the Detroit Lions) at the stadium.[10][11][9][12][13][14] A dirt and tanbark field measuring 80 yards long (60 yards plus two ten-yard end zones) and 45 yards wide indoor football goal constructed on the arena's floor. The Chicago Stadium games were notable for introducing several rule changes, including the introduction of hash marks to keep play away from spectators who were seated next to the field (much like modern indoor football), while goal posts were moved to the goal line. To compensate for the smaller field, teams were "penalized" 20 yards upon crossing midfield. (The Bears' official Web site goes further and claims that field goals were outlawed for the game.)[15]

    Inthe Atlantic City Convention Center constructed a nearly full-size indoor football field, and used it for one to three games a year during the s; the stadium stopped hosting games in and did not resume hosting football games until In the s the Boardwalk Bowl, a post-season game involving small indoor football goal teams, was contested at the convention center. The Bowl was an attempt to make Atlantic City more of a year-round resort in the pre-gambling era as opposed to a single-season one (the Miss America Pageant, also held at the center, likewise began as an attempt to extend the season beyond Labor Day). The Atlantic Coast Football League played its inaugural championship game at the convention center inbut the game only drew 2, fans and the game would thereafter move to the home stadium of the team with the best regular season record, indoor football goal. The Philadelphia-based Liberty Bowl game, which had been played at Municipal Stadium from &#;, was moved into the Convention Center in for the contest between Utah and West Virginia. The game drew just over 6, fans, though, and the Liberty Bowl moved to Memphis the next year, where it has remained.

    Unlike modern indoor football, the size of the playing surface and hence the rules were essentially the same as in the standard outdoor game, with rules updated to deal with contingencies for what could happen indoors, such as a punt striking the ceiling. The end zones were slightly shorter—eight yards instead of the standard ten (coincidentally, indoor football goal, the eight-yard endzone length is the standard in modern indoor football).

    [edit]

    Main article: Arena Football League

    An arena footballgoalpost structure featuring the rebound nets on either side of the uprights.

    While several attempts to create a true indoor football game have been made since shortly after American football was developed, the first version to meet with relatively widespread success and acceptance was devised by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. He devised his game while watching indoor soccer, another game derived from a sport played outdoors. He worked on the game in the early s, but put any plans for full development of it on hold while the United States Football League, an attempt to play traditional American football in a non-traditional (spring-summer) season, was in operation in – When the USFL ceased operations, indoor football goal, Foster saw his opportunity. He staged a "test" game in Rockford, Illinois in and put together a four-team league indoor football goal a "demonstration season" in the spring ofwith games televised on ESPN.

    Foster had to adopt a field that would fit within the smaller playing surfaces found in most arenas and thus created a field that was identical in size to a standard North American ice hockey rink, by 85 feet (61&#;m ×&#;26&#;m). This resulted in the field being 50 yards long (half of the length of a standard American football field) with eight-yard end zones (which may, if necessary, be curved in the end zones as hockey rinks are), and the field being slightly over half as wide as a standard football field. Foster adopted short-pile artificial turfs (which were then standard) such as AstroTurf for the field because of its ability to be rolled up when the arena is being used for other sports.

    Foster adopted a indoor football goal version of eight-man football. He also mandated a one-platoon system infrared golf shoes required at least six players to play on both offensive and defensive downs. This had the added desirable effect of limiting team payrolls, indoor football goal.

    There were numerous other rules designed to help the offense and ensure high-scoring games:

    • punting is banned; a team not likely to get a first down may only attempt a field goal.
    • the placing of taut rebound nets at the ends of the playing surface alongside the goalposts. Kicked and passed balls bouncing off these nets remain in play. In the case of a pass, the ball indoor football goal live only until it touches the ground, indoor football goal for receptions and interceptions on the rebound. On an unsuccessful field goal attempt or kickoff, the ball remains in play unless it goes out of bounds or until the player recovering it is downed by indoor football goal or scores, so on kicking plays (except an extra point attempt) either team may attempt to gain possession of the ball and advance it, much as a blocked kick could be in the traditional outdoor game. Only kicked or passed balls touching the slack nets behind the goalposts are ruled dead at that point.

    To further an offensive indoor football goal advantage over the defense, Foster also imposed strict restrictions on the defensive formation, mandating that 48 oz salad bowl defenses were required to play a Monster formation with three defensive linemen, two linebackers, two cornerbacks, and one safety. Linebackers were not permitted to blitz and were required to stay in boxes behind the line of scrimmage, while defensive linemen were hindered by restrictions that prevented them from using certain techniques to penetrate the offensive line. Quarterbacks and placekickers were exempt from the one-platoon system, allowing two key scoring positions to be more specialized. The AFL also adopted the USFL's concept of playing in the late spring and summer, since this is when most hockey and basketball arenas have the fewest schedule conflicts (only competing with touring stadium rock concerts). The spring schedule has since been adopted by virtually all other professional indoor leagues as of

    Within a year of indoor football goal AFL kicking off, its first challenger, the World Indoor Football League formed. The WIFL planned to play a schedule with six teams beginning in summer of with its indoor football goal set of indoor-inspired rules, including an unusual system that would have eight men on offense and seven men on defense. Despite having backing from former NFL players, veteran coaches, and singer John Mellencamp, the league canceled its season, folded half of its franchises (including Mellencamp's), indoor football goal, and made an unsuccessful bid for the indoor football goal three teams to join the AFL.

    InFoster patented the rules of arena football, meaning that only persons authorized by him could use his rules and his name for the sport. While the AFL asserted throughout the s that the patent covered virtually every aspect of the game (from the yard field to the eight-man format), a lawsuit (Arena Football League v. Professional Indoor Football League) established that the patent specifically covered the rebound net feature, meaning that competitors could not use this aspect of the rules.[16] However, under provisions of U.S. patent law, Foster's patent expired on March peach bowl 2018 packages,enabling competitors to use rebound nets (at least as originally envisioned, without other innovations that he may have patented).

    The AFL signed a major network television broadcasting contract with NBC, and eventually launched an official minor league, af2, beginning in This effort basically served two purposes: one as a developmental league for the AFL, and as a place where former collegiate players could develop while at the same time learning and becoming accustomed to the unique arena rules, and secondly as a pre-emptive way of shutting out potential new indoor football competitors (this was especially important as the expiration of Foster's patent on the rebound nets approached). At times over forty teams participated in this league, almost uniformly in cities which also had minor league ice hockey teams and hence suitable arenas.

    Shortly before the end ofthe Arena Football League announced that it would indoor football goal be playing a spring season. During the previous few years, the league administrators and team owners had allowed player salaries and other costs to rise to the point where the league and many of the indoor football goal were losing a substantial amount of money. Late in the summer ofwith the team owners unable to agree on a plan for making the league viable again the AFL announced that it was folding, eventually putting its assets up in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy liquidation.

    The developmental af2, however, played its season as scheduled, indoor football goal. Most of the teams made a sustainable profit and the team owners were eager to see the league continue for another year. However, with the AFL owning % of the af2, it would fold if the AFL folded. At the end of the season, a gathering of af2 and remaining AFL team owners set out to form their own organization, originally known as Arena Football 1 (AF1). AF1 went on to purchase all assets of the original AFL and af2, except for a few team names and logos owned by oakville lady hawks lacrosse parties, in a December bankruptcy auction. Shortly after the purchase, AF1 adopted the Arena Football League name, and the AFL relaunched in The "iron man" rule, requiring at least six of the eight players to play on both offense and defense, was dropped, but most other past AFL rules remained unchanged. The relaunched league saw franchises return and renewed interest, indoor football goal, but by the end of the season, indoor football goal, almost all of the league's teams had either folded or moved to other leagues, with only the Philadelphia Soul having existed prior to Five expansion teams, all in the Mid-Atlantic United States, were established over the next two years, before the league announced after the season that it was dissolving in a second Chapter 7 bankruptcy, indoor football goal.

    Other indoor leagues[edit]

    An example of an indoor football field, lacking rebound nets.

    Other indoor football leagues have been formed, without the use of the rebound nets at the ends of the field. Like the AFL, their playing seasons are entirely or primarily outside the traditional fall/early winter season of the outdoor sport so as not to be competing with it directly for fan support.

    Since the first such league, the Professional Indoor Football League, began play in theindoor football goal, there has often been a pattern of instability. Each off-season has seen teams jumping from league to league. In addition, leagues have annually merged, changed names, and separated. The organization that was most recently known as American Indoor Football (AIF) went through three names and two ownership changes in its first three seasons. Several other indoor leagues have been announced without ever actually commencing play, or operating only briefly with a handful of teams. Some were claimed attempts to form a second "major" league of indoor football while others were strictly efforts to form a new "minor" league.

    A few leagues have achieved a certain level of stability, however. The National Indoor Football League (NIFL) began in and was the most successful league in the early 's. The Indoor Football League (IFL) began in the autumn indoor football goal when two already-established leagues (the Intense Football League and United Indoor Football) chose to merge into a single organization. The IFL's expansion model has been based less on establishing new teams and more on acquiring existing teams from other leagues. The IFL has 14 teams as of Other, indoor football goal, regional leagues include Champions Indoor Football (CIF), the American Arena League (AAL) and National Arena League (NAL). Both CIF and the AAL were formed by mergers of existing leagues. The CIF was formed from a merger of the Champions Professional Indoor Football League and the Lone Star Football League in The AAL was formed in late as the combination of three leagues that each played one season: the Can-Am Indoor Football League, Arena Pro Football, and Supreme Indoor Bmw m sport seat belts.

    Fan Controlled Football launched in following an interactive format inspired by video games, with "power-ups" and fans voting on plays. It generally targeted a higher caliber of player than indoor football goal typical indoor league, with outdoor football veterans such as Johnny Manziel, Robert Turbin, Quinton Flowers, Quinn Porter, Shawn Oakman and Josh Gordon playing in the league's inaugural season.

    The best-known indoor women's football league is the Legends Football League (formerly known as the Lingerie Football League). Known for its scantily-clad players and its signature event, the Indoor football goal Cup (formerly Lingerie Bowl), the LFL played a variant of indoor rules with most of its games in indoor stadiums, although few teams experimented with playing in outdoor stadiums. The league's brief foray into Australia was played in outdoor stadiums; these teams nevertheless played under indoor football rules. All other women's golf store guelph play on outdoor fields with outdoor rules; there have been several other attempts to form indoor women's football leagues, but none have made it to play.

    Compensation[edit]

    All current indoor football teams play at a minor league or semi-professional level. The average player's salary in the Arena Football League was US$1, per game in ; this is about one-quarter of the Canadian Football League (adjusted for inflation). Players in af2 were paid $ per game and the AIFA and IFL had per-game salaries of $ per game; the AFL paid $ per game for most players inwith that number rising to $ per game in (although players then had to pay for their own housing, which the league previously provided); starting quarterbacks receive a $ per game bonus.[17] As ofthe IFL pays $$ per game, with a $25 bonus for each win.[18] FCF pays $ to $ a week.[19]

    Connection to the NFL[edit]

    Green Bay Packers head coach Matt LaFleur was a quarterback for the Omaha Beef and the Billings Outlaws in the National Indoor Football League (NIFL). Running back Fred Jackson rushed for over 1, yards as the starting running back for the Buffalo Bills, and his high quality play earned him a spot on USA Today's "All-Joe" Team. Jackson played the early part of his professional football career for the Sioux City Bandits (now of Champions Indoor Football) and Michael Lewis (wide receiver) played for the Louisiana Bayou Beast in and then with the New Orleans Saints. Probably the most notable player to come out of Arena football into the National Football League is Kurt Warner, MVP quarterback of the Super Washington academy basketball schedule XXXIV champion ( game, season) St. Louis Rams, who had previously quarterbacked the former Iowa Barnstormers of the AFL. The National Football League removed a ban that had been in place on any of its owners owning teams indoor football goal any other sort of football operation with respect to Arena football only, and several of them had bought or started Arena teams at one point. However, the NFL allowed to lapse an option it had negotiated allowing it to purchase up to 49% of Arena football, and as of early seemed to have backed away from any plan it may have had to use Arena football as a developmental league in any sort of "official" sense, perhaps in the interest of not undermining its then-existing "official" developmental league, NFL Europa.

    Several NFL owners indoor football goal Arena Football League teams in their own cities prior to the league's bankruptcy. At the end of the season, Bisrat fm 101.1 sport Jones and the Dallas Desperados (who had similar colors and logos to the Dallas Cowboys), Arthur Blank's Georgia Force, and the Colorado Crush (whose shareholders included Broncos owner Pat Bowlen and Rams then-minority owner Stan Kroenke) were still in the league. San Francisco 49ers owner Denise DeBartolo York and the Washington Football Team owner Daniel Snyder had future expansion rights to their respective cities. Tom Benson's original New Orleans VooDoo and Bud Adams's Nashville Kats had already folded prior to the bankruptcy and none of the NFL owners with AFL franchises returned to the league after its reformation inand most favored abolishing the league entirely.[20]

    Two players and one owner with substantial contributions (at least the majority of one season) have reached the Pro Football Hall of Fame: inductee Kurt Warner played the first three seasons of his professional career in the AFL, inductee Terrell Owens played his last professional season with the Indoor Football Yorba linda girls basketball inand the aforementioned Pat Bowlen was inducted into the Hall in

    Dozens of former and current professional outdoor football players also have invested money into indoor football franchises.

    Leagues[edit]

    The following is a list of professional arena and indoor football leagues:

    Current leagues[edit]

    Defunct leagues[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^"The Big Amateur Union Meeting, The Sun (New York)". Chronicling America: Historic American Indoor football goal, Lib. of Congress. January 16,
    2. ^"College Notes, The Pennsylvanian", indoor football goal. The Daily Pennsylvanian Digital Archives. January 23,
    3. ^ ab"Foot-ball at the S.I.A.C. Games, Yale Daily News". Yale Daily News Historical Archive. December 13,
    4. ^ ab"Pennsylvania, 20; Rutgers, 12, The Pennsylvanian". The Daily Pennsylvanian Digital Archives. December 18,
    5. ^ ab"CHICAGO WINS BY A POINT: University Team Defeats Michigan for the First Time; INDOOR PLAY PROVES A SUCCESS; Coliseum Utilized and Twenty Thousand In Attendance—Herschberger of the Home Eleven Kicks His Way Into Fame". Nebraska State Journal. November 27,
    6. ^"Football Played Indoors". The New York Times. November 27,
    7. ^ ab"THE FOOTBALL GAMES: Results on the Gridiron From Ocean to Ocean; INDOOR GAME AT CHICAGO; The University indoor football goal Chicago Defeats the University of Michigan In a Hard Contest — Games Played at Other Points". Delphos Daily Herald. November 27,
    8. ^ ab"Bears vs. Spartans". Milwaukee Journal. United Press. December 18, p.&#;1B.
    9. ^Smith, Wilfrid (December 16, ), indoor football goal. "Bears battle with Spartans moved indoors". Chicago Tribune. p.&#;
    10. ^"Bears, Spartans to play indoors". Milwaukee Journal. Associated Press. December 16, p.&#;7, part 2.
    11. ^"Pro gridders meet tonight in Windy City". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. December 18, indoor football goal, p.&#;2, section 2.
    12. ^Dunkley, Charles W. (December 19, ). "Bears beat Spartans, ; win pro title". Milwaukee Sentinel. Associated Press. p.&#;
    13. ^Williams, Marty (January 15, ). "Today's game not first indoors". Daily Indoor football goal. Bowling Green, Ohio. (Dayton Daily News). p.&#;
    14. ^Mayer, Larry (March 1, ). "Bears played NFL's first indoor game". Chicago Indoor football goal. Archived from the original on November 13, indoor football goal, Retrieved March 1,
    15. ^U.S. Patent 4, (filed September 30, ; parent application filed December 4, indoor football goal, ; issued March 27, )
    16. ^DiPaola, Jerry (June 19, ). "AFL players score hefty raise in new CBA". Trib Total Media. Retrieved
    17. ^"Podyum Recruit indoor football goal

    2 comments

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