Lange hockey skates for sale

lange hockey skates for sale

All sales are final with no warranty, guarantee or refunds, so please be sure what you are bidding on. Thank you very much for your business. Lange first introduced these models, featuring a hinged plastic boot and a foam liner, and they were endorsed by NHL players, including Phil. Lange skates were an outgrowth of their plastic ski boots. Phil Esposito endorsed and used Lange skates. They went out of favor due to their weight non-.

Lange hockey skates for sale - something

Lange (ski boots)

Lange is a major producer of ski boots used in alpine (downhill) skiing. They introduced the world's first plastic ski boots in 1962, and a greatly improved model aimed at the racing market in 1965. After several World Cup and Olympics wins in 1967 and 1968 made them a must-have on the circuit, Lange has remained a force in the racing market ever since. Their boots have equipped five times as many World Cup medal winners as any other brand into the 2000s. The front-entry design introduced by Lange is used by almost every modern ski boot to this day. Lange remains a major brand worldwide.

Bob Lange had been experimenting with plastic reinforced ski boots as early as 1958, but it took some time before the basic design was made usable. The first examples from 1962, built by Lange employee Dave Luensmann, used ABS shells and laces for closure, but were not very successful. A follow-up design released in volume in the winter of 1965/66 used a new thermoplastic shell, hinged cuff, and latching buckles, and became the first commercially successful replacement for leather boots. By 1970 they were almost universal on the racing circuit, and selling hundreds of thousands of examples as the world's leading ski boot brand. Lange entered the hockey market during the 1970s. Lange skates were an outgrowth of their plastic ski boots. Phil Esposito endorsed and used Lange skates. They went out of favor due to their weight non-traditional looks but had the advantages that they were comfortable to wear and offered more protection than traditional skates.

A major technical misstep in 1970 led to financial difficulties and the eventual sale of the company to Garcia in 1973. Under the new ownership, the company continued development of the classic front-opening ski boot design. Over a series of models, the cuff began extending up the calf of the leg to greatly improve directional control and reduce lower-leg injuries. Garcia ran into financial difficulties of their own, and their suite of ski products was purchased by the owner of Rossignol in 1978. Under their direction, Lange released the famous bright-orange XL-R and Z designs of the 1980s, versions of which remained the racer's choice well into the 1990s. Modern Lange boots have changed little in design since these models.

History[edit]

Downhill develops[edit]

Alpine skiing developed as a specialization from what was generally a cross-country sport. The downhill portions were shallow, short and had to be skied up, so the majority of the day would be spent in the cross-country striding motion.[1]

As techniques diverged, especially with the widespread introduction of ski lifts, the market for customized downhill equipment rose. A major advance came with the introduction of the Kandahar binding in the 1930s, which allowed the boot to be locked down to the ski during the downhill portions. This provided more control over "edging", rolling the ski onto its side to generate turning forces. The introduction of the Head Standard ski during the winter of 1950–1951 furthered this evolution by allowing the skis to hold an edge against the snow with much more force, dramatically improving turning performance. They were such a great improvement, the Standard was known as "The Cheater" because it allowed any skier to turn with ease.[2]

Like the skis and bindings, ski boots had also evolved from earlier cross-country styles. By the 1950s these were essentially unchanged from the 1800s, consisting of a thick sole with a thinner upper shell of leather, similar to a normal winter boot. A flexible sole allowed the boot to bend forward at the toe to allow the cross-country striding motion. The upper cuff provided little sideways support, as this had not been a serious concern for cross-country. Ideally, for downhill skiing the boot would be rigid side-to-side to transmit rotational forces to the ski, allowing the skier to edge the ski directly. Moreover, in the downhill role there was no need for forward flex of the sole, which was clamped down anyway.

Downhill before Lange[edit]

This need led to downhill boots that retained the same basic shoe-like style of earlier designs, but were built much stiffer to allow for greater control. These had the serious drawback of being extremely uncomfortable. This was especially true during the breaking-in period, which might last weeks. One solution had the skier lace up the boots and stand in hot water in a bathtub for an hour to soak, then walk around to allow the leather to move to fit the skier's foot. This had the disadvantage of greatly softening the boot, allowing it to wear out much more quickly.

Even if this hot water fitting step wasn't used, strong skiers would wear out their boots in months as the leather softened, and mere weeks if they raced them. This left only a short period of time between the painful break-in period and the time when the boots were too soft to provide good control over the skis.Jean-Claude Killy took to having Michel Arpin ski in his boots while they broke in, giving them to Killy to ski for the few weeks before they wore out. Another solution to improve lateral control was the "long thong", a leather strap wrapped around the boot and lower leg, which came at the cost of eliminating any sort of quick release.

Lange's first attempts[edit]

Robert B. ("Bob") Lange flew Lockheed P-38 Lightning airplanes for the United States Army Air Forces before leaving to earn a degree at Harvard University, where he studied economics and engineering. It was during this time that he took up skiing, and like many other beginner skiers of the era, found himself dismayed by the relative antiquity of the designs. (Contrast with the Head Standard ski).

Lange had another problem to solve; his size 9-1/2 triple-E wide feet demanded custom boots, which he ordered from Peter Limmer. These were not stiff enough for his liking, so Lange attempted to fix this by cutting strips of fiberglass left over from covering his boat, and gluing them to his boots using polyester resin. This 1948 attempt is the earliest recorded attempt at a plastic-reinforced boot.

After graduating in 1949 he joined his family insurance business in Dubuque, Iowa, but did this only for a short time. Lange opened Hawkeye Plastics Corporation in the basement of the old Brunswick Radio Company factory, which had gone bankrupt during the Great Depression. In 1955 he received his first contract, from the Eska Company also located in Dubuque, when General Motors asked Eska for 30,000 kiddie-cars in the form of the 1956 Corvette. Lange's company produced the plastic Corvette bodies for Eska. Over the next few years the company produced a variety of fiberglass products, including hula-hoops and the interiors for refrigerators.

Throughout, Lange continued to experiment with improvements to ski boots, buying numerous pairs to cut them up and see if they could be re-enforced to make them stronger. Lange was not the only designer to attempt this, and several boots soaked in epoxy or other glues were available in the 1950s. None of these offered any great improvement, and lacing them up was even more difficult than before. Lange had built several models with epoxy or polyester by 1958, later claiming to have skied a successful all-plastic boot in 1957.

Royalite[edit]

Fiberglass simply didn't have the right combination of features for an all-plastic boot. As part of the Corvette contract, Lange's Hawkeye Plastics had sub-contracted the seats to another local plastics company, run by David Luensmann. Luensmann had made the seats for the cars by vacuum-molding Royalite, an ABS plastic from Uniroyal. When Lange's Hawkeye went out of business, enough of this material was left over to experiment with boot designs, and Lange asked Luensmann to try it.

Luensmann used strips of the material in a heat press to melt them into a single shell. He handed the results to Lange the next year, in the summer of 1961. After trying them that winter, Lange asked Luensmann to join him in a new company dedicated to making plastic boots. For mass production, the two built a vacuum press to shape the cuffs from larger sections of Royalite. This produced an extremely stiff boot suitable only for the most powerful racers. Attempting to solve the problem, they struck on the solution of molding the boot in two separate parts and joining them through rivets on either side, at the level of the ankle. This allowed the boot to retain all the lateral stiffness of the original design, while allowing the forward flex to be better controlled.

The new design, in blue and white, was released in limited numbers in 1962. Several people tried them out and reported a number of minor design issues, especially the problems lacing them up which often required two people. Levered buckles were an obvious solution, first invented by Hans Martin and introduced to the market in 1955 on the Henke Speedfit. However, Henke held the patent on the concept and Lange was reluctant to pay for a license.

By the winter of 1963 they had managed to fill only a small number of their orders and even smaller number were in use. These few boots suffered a number of mechanical failures that were traced to the poor performance of ABS plastic in low temperatures.

Adiprene[edit]

The Lange Swinger, part of the "2nd generation" lineup from around 1968. These early examples clearly trace their ancestry to the leather boots they replaced, including a leather-like mottled surface treatment.

In late 1962 DuPont provided a solution, a new pourable polyurethane plastic known as Adiprene. This material was much less affected by the cold, but had the distinct disadvantage that it could not be vacuum-molded, as it needed to be used in liquid form. Instead, it had to be heated and poured into a mold and then allowed to cool and set. This made it much more time consuming to use in production, but the advantages were too great to ignore. The company spent most of 1963 trying to solve the production problems, ignoring the growing list of orders for the older ABS models.

In the end, no production of the new design was undertaken that year, leading to friction with his sales partners. In 1965 Lange finally added Henke-like buckles to his boots when that company gave up the patent. Not only did the buckle make it easy to close even the stiffest boots, the plastic spread the load across the entire cuff, applying even pressure to the foot. Leather designs tended to distort where the buckles attached, leading to tight spots on the foot and eventually damaging the leather.

It was not until 1965 they had built a new molding machine known as "Mickey Mouse" that could inject the Adiprene to speed production. This system was only marginally functional, and only 600 pairs of boots were produced that year. It was not until early 1966 that full production was able to start and 1,000 pairs had been completed. By the end of the year the number stood at 6,000, doubling in 1967 to 12,000, and again in 1968 to 25,000.

By this time, Rosemount Engineering had introduced their own all-synthetic boot. Unlike the Lange, the Rosemount design was made of rigid fiberglass and split open in two parts to put it on. Like Lange, they were only able to produce small numbers of boots, about 900 pair, for the 1965/66 season.[13] Many sources make the claim that Rosemount was first to introduce a plastic boot commercially, but it appears that both were available in limited numbers at the same time. In any event, Lange's earlier Royalite models clearly pre-date any of the Rosemount examples.

Commercial success[edit]

1968's Lady Lange Competite was the first women's-specific race boot, the companion to the Comp model. It differs from the Comp in that it uses a single large flap over the front of the boot, a design note that did not continue on future models.

Production was not the only issue; the new design also needed a test market to popularize it. Lange approached the United States ski team hoping to have them test the new design. However, they were being supplied by Heirling, and weren't interested.

In January 1966, Lange called Dave Jacob, who was at that time coaching the Canadian ski team. Lange asked if Jacob would be willing to try the new boots with the Canadian team. Jacob agreed and several team members tried them out, but he noted that "they were really bad boots." Lange paid Jacob's way to Dubuque to help implement solutions for his concerns.

In June 1966 five pairs of boots incorporating these changes were shipped to Mount Hood, where the Canadian team was training. Gerry Rinaldi, Rod Hebron and Nancy Greene tried them on and approved. Soon after, Greene won the Golden Rose Race on the new boots. Lange then flew to the 1966 World Championships in Portillo, Chile and handed out examples to anyone willing to test them. He carried around a tape recorder, asking for any suggestions on how to improve the design. When Hebron and Suzy Chaffee showed dramatic improvement during the races, the new boot became an object of serious curiosity. Curiosity changed to must-have when Greene started winning races in 1967 on the newly formed World Cup circuit, and eventually took the gold medal.[16]

Five medals were won on Lange boots at the 1968 Winter Olympics, making them the most-winning brand of the competition. At the Olympics, Lange signed a deal with Dynamic to produce their line of skis for the North American market. The company went public in 1969, and used the proceeds to purchase land in Broomfield, Colorado, building a 40,000 square foot (3,700 m2) boot factory, a 42,000 square foot (3,900 m2) ski factory, and a 20,000 square foot (1,900 m2) warehouse. The new factories dramatically improved production, and over the 1969 season alone the company shipped 100,000 pairs of boots.

1969 was the breakthrough year for the company. Three models were on the market to serve different performance levels, the Standard for recreational skiing, the Pro for more demanding use, and the Comp for downhill racing. There was only one competitor, Rosemont, but their product was based on fiberglass and used a side-opening system that was clearly inferior to Lange's boots and could only compete on the low-end, in spite of a high-end price. By the end of the season, Lange was being sold at hundreds of stores across the country at prices no one else could demand.

To reach new markets, plans for a new boot factory in Montebelluna, Italy started, along with another in Montreal to produce ice skates using similar concepts and materials. The Montreal plant was later expanded to sell ski boots to Europe as well, avoiding import tariffs on US products. On top of this, at the 1970 World Championships at Val Gardena, Billy Kidd won the gold medal in Combined on Lange boots, and Lange or Dynamic took medals in every event, men and women's.

Lange-flo[edit]

Alden Hanson of Dow Chemical contacted Lange in 1970 to tell them about a new material the company had invented. The new plastic retained a putty-like texture in any weather, and Hanson's son had used it to make boots with a layer of the material sandwiched between a normal leather boot and a hard fiberglass shell. The material was a natural fit with Lange's plastic boots, fitting between the liner and shell.

When Lange staff tried it, they unanimously supported it. The timing proved difficult, however; 200,000 pairs of boots were planned for the 1970–1971 season, and if they were going to use the newly christened "Lange-flo" it would have to go into production before there was time for extensive testing. Lange decided to press ahead, putting it in all of their boots for the next model year.

The boots were launched with a provocative advertising campaign of a woman wearing the new boots and a cat-suit with the same boot buckles holding it closed, in place of a zipper or buttons. The only wording simply stated "soft inside".[19] This was the first of a series of provocative ads now referred to simply as "the Lange girls".[20]

Although the Lange-flo worked, the vinyl liner that held it proved to crack after hard use,[N 1] and let the Lange-flo squeeze into the boot. The solution was to place the Lange-flo in a separate plastic bag outside the liner, but as the liners were sown into the boot, this required a recall to re-fit them. About 20,000 of the 200,000 boots shipped that season returned to the factory.[N 2] In their attempt to deal with the problem in a timely fashion, new staff were added and theft became a problem. Bad record keeping and lost tags led to many boots being shipped to the wrong people. Many simply never received their boots back.

At about the same time, Dynamic started protesting its agreement with Lange, while cash was needed to start the Canadian plant and introduce the new skate design. Emergency loans kept the company going through 1971, when they reported a $1.5 million loss, largely due to the warrantee work due to Lange-flo. The next year Hanson introduced their rear-entry design, the first real competitor. Lange shares continued to drop throughout.

In 1973 a further round of funding failed, and Lange sold the company to Garcia Company, owners of the Mitchell Reel fishing tackle company and tennis brands that was building a ski portfolio. Lange signed on as a consultant to Garcia, but didn't like the results. He left the company shortly thereafter, in July 1974.

Extending upward[edit]

Early plastic boots, like their earlier leather cousins, rose just above the ankle and provided little support if the skier leaned forward or back. Around 1966 the French developed a new short-turn technique called avalement that stored energy by bending the tail of the ski and then using this to accelerate out of turns. This required the skier to lean back on the skis, and to support this style, skiers took to adding any number of ad-hoc solutions to add support at the back.

During the 1970–1971 season, Jack Nagel introduced the "Jet-Stix", an aftermarket accessory designed to be used on plastic boots from Lange or Rosemont. The Jet-Stix consisted of a fiberglass extension shaped like a shoehorn that strapped on under the top buckle so it lay along the back of the calf. These allowed the skier to lean back and raise the front of the ski upward with ease.[23] Lange quickly followed with their own version, the Lange Spoiler.[24] Similar devices were common through 1970.

In 1967 Nordica introduced a new injection-moulded "hybrid" design that wrapped a stiff shell around a conventional leather boot. The innerboot was removable for custom fit work, a major advance over Lange's cemented-in liner. This saw little interest, but Nordica followed this in 1969 with their Astral design, a direct attack on Lange. Their introduction of the bright yellow Astral Slalom in 1972, better known as the "Banana Boot", incorporated a spoiler directly into the cuff and eliminated the need for a separate device. Soon Nordica were selling 400,000 pairs a year, Lange's first serious competition in the market.

For the 1971-1972 season, Lange introduced the "Comp II" boot, following on their earlier Comp series racing boots but incorporating the higher back similar to the Nordica design. The Comp II was soon joined by the Pro II, and then by midrange Banshee with four buckles of an improved design. This change set off an industry-wide evolution to ever-higher cuffs, culminating in the 1980s with cuffs that rise about half way to the knee. Some designs, the "knee highs", had secondary cuffs that rose to just below the knee.[26]

Under Garcia, Lange continued to improve the boot design, while at the same time they introduced Lange branded skis based on Dynamic models, purchased the Burtski binding, and added a range of products like ski poles and goggles. Garcia became the first company to offer a complete range of ski gear as an integrated set. Throughout, Garcia's main product line remained its fishing gear, and during the mid-1970s a wave of Japanese competitors arrived and quickly pushed them out of the fishing market. The company went bankrupt in 1978, after owning Lange for only four years.

Boix-Vives and Rossignol[edit]

The XL-R cemented Lange's reputation as the racer's boot of choice. Modern boots are little changed from this example from the early 1980s.
The Z-R followed the XL-R with a number of minor upgrades. The buckles lock closed, and are released by pulling on the small tabs. A control for the "cant" of the boot has been added, the small black square over the ankle. Minor changes like this followed all the way to current examples.

When Garcia's bankruptcy put them on the market, Rossignol, the famous ski company, was looking to enter the tennis market. Rossignol purchased Garcia's existing tennis production lines and started selling off the other divisions; when Lange skis and Burt bindings failed to find a buyer they were closed down. The same fate awaited Lange boots, but Rossignol's CEO, Laurent Boix-Vives, purchased the company personally through a Swiss holding company, Ski Expansion.

New warehouses were opened in Williston and Colchester, Vermont, where Rossignol and Dynastar skis were sent for distribution into the North American market. For a time, Dynastar skis made in the Authier factory were sold under the Lange brand in the United States. During the late 1970s, the rising United States dollar exchange rate and historically-high interest rates made United States operations increasingly expensive. Many North American ski companies found themselves unable to compete with Europe, even as the ski industry was being hit by low participation rates for the same economic reasons. In 1982 Boix-Vives closed the Garcia factories, including Lange in Colorado, moving all boot production to Lange's factory in Italy. Research and development for Lange remained in Colorado.

In 1982 they introduced the famous bright-orange XL-R design. The XL-R had a number of improvements over earlier models. Among these was a new buckle design; previous designs generally use a metal loop attached on one side of the cuff and a buckle with a rack cut into the bottom attached to the other. For tighter settings the loop had to be inserted into a rack cut higher on the buckle, lowering the mechanical advantage and making it much harder to close. The new design moved the rack to one cuff and put the metal loop on the buckle itself. This offered steady mechanical advantage on any setting. The new four-buckle system is largely identical to any modern downhill ski boot.

The XL-R was a runaway hit on the racing market and soon followed by the XL-S and XL-T versions for different performance levels. The XL series were also well known for the way they allowed water to leak into the boot where the lower cuffs folded over each other near the toe, and prompted many owners to cover the area with duct tape. The liners also tended to "pack down" fairly quickly, flattening out and no longer offering support. An improved version of the basic XL design was later introduced as the Z-model, which included a new low-profile locking buckle design that would not accidentally open once locked, and a small plastic tab in front of the toe flaps to prevent snow forcing its way in.

Meanwhile, the Italian factory at Montebelluna was experimenting with a new custom-fit liner, using a thermosetting plastic called Thermofit. Pressed by rapid changes in the market, notably Salomon's introduction of their hugely successful rear-entry boot line, the Thermofit system was developed as a way to remain on the leading edge. Betting the company on the new system, it failed in testing, leaving the company with no catchy designs. Among the failed attempts to address this problem were in-boot heaters, the CFX and SPE rear-entry designs largely identical to Salomon models, and a "mid-entry" boot with cable closure, the Mid.

Of all of these, only the mid-entry design would be at all successful the market. This design combines a traditional lower boot with a split upper cuff like that of a rear-entry design. The lower portion buckled down to provide strong support, whereas conventional rear-entry boots were sometimes noted for the lack of support for the forward foot and general softness in the leg cuff. Lange no longer produces a mid-entry design, and examples from other companies are also becoming rare.

By the late 1980s, Rossignol was in the process of building out their own line of products similar to Garcia's earlier attempts. This led to their purchase of Dynastar and other ski brands. In 1989 they purchased Lange from Boix-Vives, ending Lange ski production. Lange was partnered with Dynastar skis and (after 1994) Look bindings, a pairing that remains to this day. In 2001, Lange continued to be the brand of racing, equipping five times as many many medal-winning skiers in the World Cup as any other brand.

Quiksilver[edit]

In March 2005, after years of cycling profits that followed the United States dollar exchange rate, and facing retirement at age 78, Boix-Vives decided to sell his stake in Rossignol. His share was purchased for $55 million by the Australian/United States sporting wear company, Quiksilver, part of a larger $213 million deal. Boix-Vives took over operations of Rossignol's golf division.

Quiksilver consolidated all of their North American operations in Park City, Utah. Unfortunately for Quiksilver, this was occurring in a period of poor snow, and profits plummeted. In 2007 several board members, including Boix-Vives, quit the company. With no experienced managers left, and losses on the order of $50 million in the skiing divisions, Quiksilver soon put the company up for sale.

In August 2008, Quiksilver announced that it would be selling the Rossignol group to Chartreuse & Mont Blanc, a wholly owned shell company formed by Macquarie Group of Australia.[30]

In July 2013, Macquairie sold the Rossignol Group, along with its subsidiaries Lange and Dynastar, to a partnership of Altor Equity Partners (a Swedish investment group) and the Boix-Vives family.[31]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^Most sources suggest that the Lange-flo interacted chemically with the vinyl and broke it down.
  2. ^Lund suggests that the recall resulted in close to 90% of all the Lange-flo boots being returned for work, but other sources place it at 10%.
Citations
  1. ^Morten Lund, "A Short History of Alpine Skiing: Frem Telemark to Today", Skiing Heritage Journal, Winter 1996, pp. 6-7
  2. ^John Dodge, "The Cheater", Sports Illustrated, 18 December 1961
  3. ^Paul Stewart, "A Revolutionary New Ski Boot Has A Streamlined Shell Of Rigid Fiber Glass", Sports Illustrated, 15 November 1965
  4. ^Nancy Greene, "Questions and Answers", Nancy Greene official website
  5. ^"History of the Lange Girls"Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, Skiingmag
  6. ^Tom Winter, "Lange boots revolutionary in more ways than one", Vail Daily, 30 December 2004
  7. ^Northwest Skier, 27 November 1970, p. 11
  8. ^Northwest Skier, 16 October 1970, p. 11
  9. ^Seth Masia, "The Rise and Fall of the Knee-High Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, pp. 17-18
  10. ^Andrea Chang, "Quiksilver to sell Rossignol ski unit", Los Angeles Times, 28 August 2008
  11. ^ Anne-Sylvaine Chassany, "Altor to buy French ski maker Rossignol" "Financial Times", July 15, 2013
Bibliography
  • Morten Lund and Seth Masia, "The Boot That Bob Built", Ski, 1986 Buyer’s Guide, pp. 193–195
  • Morten Lund, "The Empire That Exploded: Bob Lange and the Plastic Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, September 2001, pp. 13–23
  • John Fry, "The Story of Modern Skiing", UPNE, 2006, pp. 81–86
  • Seth Masia, "Hansons Still At It, Darcy Holds Forth", Skiing Heritage Journal, March 2003, p. 42
  • Seth Masia, "100 Years of Rossignol", Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2007, pp. 31–37
  • Seth Masia, "The Selling of Skiing", Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2005, pp. 36–40
Further reading
  • Lange's own corporate history pages contain numerous errors that other sources agree are wrong. A considerable portion of the Lange archives were lost when the United States headquarters moved from Colorado to Vermont.
  • Seth Masia, "Fifty Years of Lange", Skiing History Magazine, March-April 2015, pp. 28-30
  • Jean-Francois Lanvers, "Lange: The History of an All-American Brand"

External links[edit]

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

Canstar Sports Inc. History



Address:

5705 Ferrier Street
Suite 200
Ville Mont-Royal, Quebec H4P 1N3
Canada


Telephone:(514) 738-3011
Fax:(514) 738-5178

Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Nike, Inc.
Incorporated:1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd.
Employees: 1,830
Sales: C$201.59 million (1993)
SICs: 3949 Sporting and Athletic Goods, Not Elsewhere Classified

Company History:

Called the "Canadian king of hockey gear," Canstar Sports Inc. ranks as one of the world's leading ice skate manufacturers. According to an August 1994 Forbes article, the company's Bauer and Cooper brands are as widely recognized in Canada as Kleenex and Xerox are in the United States. Based in a suburb of Montreal, the company parlayed its strengths in hockey skates into a strong showing in the in-line skate market in the early 1990s. By that time, Canstar's stable of brands included Bauer, Micron, Lange, Mega, and Daoust ice skates; Flak and Cooper hockey equipment; and Bauer in-line skates. With U.S. sales of $36.4 million, the Bauer brand ranked fourth among in-line skate brands in 1993. Canstar was acquired by master marketer Nike, Inc. in the latter company's largest purchase ever, a $395 million transaction.

Foundation and Corporate Developmentin the Mid-20th Century

The first pair of Bauer skates was hand-sewn in the early 1930s. By the mid-1950s, the Bauer line was the world's top seller of hockey skates, but was just one division of shoe-making conglomerate Greb Industries Ltd., best known as the first international licensee of Hush Puppies shoes. Greb also produced Kodiak boots and Collins safety shoes. Family-owned until 1974, Greb was acquired that year by Warrington Products Ltd., which was in turn controlled by Cemp Investments Ltd. The transaction made Bauer a member of the Bronfman family holdings, whose Seagram's Co. was the world's biggest liquor company. ("Cemp" was an acronym for the Bronfman heirs: Charles, Edgar, Minda, and Phyllis.) Warrington had been incorporated in 1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd. and went public under the new name two years later.

After an early 1970s surge, Bauer and its parent companies suffered through a severe contraction in the later years of the decade. From 1971 to 1982, Warrington chalked up five annual losses and its stock plummeted from $8.75 at its initial public offering to less than $1 by 1983. Bauer laid off more than one-third of its workforce and closed plants in Maine and Quebec. With the financial backing of Cemp, Warrington tried to diversify out of its free-fall, acquiring a match producer, a luggage company, an appliance maker, and a plastic pipe business.

Sweeping Change Marks 1980s

The 1980s ushered in an era of sweeping change at the company. Although not yet affiliated with the firm, Icaro Olivieri was in many respects the orchestrator of its transformation. Born in 1940, this native of northern Italy apprenticed in his father's tool shop during the 1950s. Olivieri's work with hinges and springs inspired his 1964 design of an improved ski boot fastener. His buckle was quickly adopted in place of traditional laces. Without the benefit of formal training, Olivieri then invented injection molding equipment custom-made for the production of plastic ski boots. Within just a few years, the inventor's company had captured a commanding lead in the market for boot molds and metal buckles.

After touring Warrington's rather old-fashioned skate factory in 1975, Olivieri saw an opportunity to adapt his new technology to the hockey skate industry. The Italian founded a plant in Montreal and began churning out his Micron brand skates and Tyrol ski boots, the sleek, black plastic styling of which offered a significant challenge to Bauer's long-standing dominance of the market. Several years of intensifying competition culminated in the 1981 merger of the two competitors under the Canadian company's name with Olivieri as chairman. The union created Canada's largest sporting goods firm and signaled Warrington's strategic refocus on that sector.

Given his own creative background, Olivieri sought to keep Canstar in the vanguard of design. Under his direction, the company consistently invested 2 percent to 3 percent of revenues in research and development. An intensive three-year study of hockey skates and skating culminated in the 1987 launch of the Micron Mega, a skate whose quality won Canstar the devotion of 70 percent of National Hockey League (NHL) pros. Even if they were not wearing Bauer or Micron, 90 percent of NHL players used Canstar's Tuuk or ICM blades. Commenting to The New York Times, analyst William J. Chisholm noted that Canstar's "sophisticated engineering, technology and research" gave it a decided edge over its competitors.

Warrington also augmented its line via an acquisition spree during this period. From 1981 to 1987, the company added Caper, Trappeur, Spalding, and Kerma brand ski equipment; Santana, Harvard, and (under Canadian license) Pony brand footwear; Helmetec brand helmets; and Flak brand hockey equipment to its family of sporting goods.

But this rapid diversification proved "a bust," in the words of Forbes magazine's Nina Monk. By 1987, Warrington wavered on the brink of disaster; it lost $34 million that year and was burdened with $90 million in debt. At the same time, intrafamilial differences among the Bronfmans precipitated the breakup of the Cemp investment group. That year, Warrington sold Greb Inc. and its line of fashion shoes, keeping Bauer and the sporting goods. In 1988, Olivieri and investment group Dynamic Capital Corp. stepped in to execute a leveraged buyout of the Bronfmans' 30 percent interest in Warrington. The chairman turned majority stakeholder renamed the firm Canstar Sports Inc. and brought in turnaround expert Gerald Wasserman.

Wasserman gave Nina Monk of Forbes magazine a curt evaluation of the company he joined, saying that it "had great brands but not much else." He divested Canstar's shoe and ski businesses to concentrate on hockey equipment, and, by 1989, the company was earning $8.7 million (US $6 million) on sales of $98.26 million (US $71 million). According to a 1991 article in Financial Times of Canada, Canstar sold nearly 50 percent, or 1.2 million pairs, of the 2.5 million ice skates sold around the world.

Growth Through Focused Diversificationin the 1990s

It was the perfect time to focus on skates. Ice hockey enjoyed unprecedented popularity in the early 1990s. Faye Landes, an analyst with Smith Barney (New York), told Business Journal-Portland, "Hockey is the hottest thing out there." Part of the resurgence was credited to the NHL, which achieved new heights of popularity under a more forward-looking team of leaders in the mid-1990s. Canstar's continued dedication to ice hockey was exemplified by its 1990 acquisition of Cooper Canada Ltd.'s hockey division. The country's premiere producer of protective hockey gear, Cooper offered a 1,700-item selection of pads, gloves, and helmets. Canstar acquired the Daoust ice skate business from A. Lambert International Inc. for $30 million in 1992 and launched Canstar Apparel Inc., a manufacturer of hockey jerseys and socks, the following spring.

Given its substantial position in Canada's hockey skate market, Canstar cautiously sought new avenues for growth in the early 1990s, taking special aim at the burgeoning in-line skate market. Although ice hockey skates remained Canstar's core, accounting for more than one-third of annual sales in the mid-1990s, in-line skates were touted as the key to the company's future.

In-line skates are essentially a hockey-style boot with four roller skate-type wheels mounted in line from toe to heel. Although there's considerable debate over the origins of the in-line skate (some trace it to Yoshisada Horiuchi's 1969 development of a prototype, whereas others say it was first created in the 1800s), there is a general consensus that Minnesota's Scott Olson launched the modern industry in the early 1980s with his "Rollerblade" brand skate. Initially intended for hockey players to practice and keep in shape during the warm summer months, in-line skating soon spread to the general public. The sport's widespread popularity was credited to its combination of recreation, fitness, and competitive values.

From 1990 to 1994, the number of in-line skaters in North America increased from 2 million to nearly 20 million and wholesale revenues multiplied from $75 million in 1989 to $500 million in 1994, making in-line skating the fastestgrowing sport in the United States. By 1995, the number of in-line skaters surpassed the number of participants in football, baseball, and soccer. Industry observers predicted that climb to continue, albeit at a slower pace, through the late 1990s.

Canstar got into the market in the late 1980s. In-line or off-ice skates grew from 2 percent of the firm's annual sales in 1990 to 18 percent by 1993. In 1992, the company became a founding sponsor of the 24-team professional Roller Hockey International League, as well as amateur leagues, in an effort to promote in-line skating. A 1995 brief in the Chicago Sun Times noted that roller hockey was the fastest-growing segment of the in-line market. The company also hoped to piggyback in-line skate sales on the growing popularity of the NHL, focusing especially on nontraditional skating areas in the southern United States, especially Florida, Texas, and California, where new team franchises were granted in the early 1990s.

In addition to its diversifications into related sporting goods, Canstar hoped that international expansion would provide a new avenue for growth. In 1993, the company acquired a controlling interest in Canstar Sverige AB and established an $8 million ice and in-line skate factory in Czechoslovakia. Canstar added British figure skate blade manufacturer Hatersley & Davidson to its roster of companies in 1994, thereby fulfilling two goals, diversification and geographic expansion, with one purchase. From 1990 to 1996, the geographic distribution of Canstar's revenues shifted from 70 percent domestic to about one-third indigenous.

In 1992, both Wasserman and President and Chief Operating Officer Donald C. MacMartin abruptly resigned. In 1994, Olivieri tapped Pierre Boivin, former president and CEO of Weider Sporting Goods and noted Wasserman follower, to become Canstar's president. Despite the management upheaval, Canstar enjoyed rapidly rising sales and profits in the early 1990s. After declining from $105.9 million in 1988 to $98.26 million in 1989, sales more than doubled to $201.6 million in 1993. Profits increased from $3 million in 1988 to $15.33 million.

Rumors that the company was being targeted for acquisition by footwear giant Nike began to fly in mid-1994, when the latter company signed on to sponsor the National Hockey League. After months of denial from both parties, that December Nike announced that the two companies had come to an agreement. Icaro Olivieri would sell his 46 percent stake in Canstar to the American shoemaker. The $395 million purchase price paid by Nike to acquire Canstar made it Nike's largest acquisition to date.

The union promised benefits for both companies. Canstar gave Nike an instant, well-respected and well-established position in the fast-growing ice hockey and in-line skating markets. Canstar became part of a widely praised marketing and distribution powerhouse, but Nike president Philip Knight vowed that the US $4 billion giant would not interfere with its $200 million subsidiary's autonomy. Pierre Boivin praised the merger in a 1995 interview with Greg Pesky of Sporting Goods Business, saying, "I have seldom seen such a perfect marriage between two companies."

Boivin predicted that Canstar's sales would top $400 million and Bauer's share of the in-line market would increase from about 7 percent to 32 percent by the end of the 1990s. Having long enjoyed a dominant position in the hockey market, the company planned to focus its acquisition strategy on figure skating, apparel, and vertical integration. Boivin expected to target Eastern and Western Europe, South America, and Asia for geographic growth in the late 1990s.

Principal Subsidiaries: Canstar Sports Group Inc.; Canstar Sports U.S.A., Inc.; Canstar Sports AG; Canstar Italia S.p.A.; Canstar Apparel Inc.; Canstar Sverige AB; Helmtec Industries Inc.; Helmtec U.S.A., Inc.

Further Reading:

  • "Bauer Named Sponsor of Pro In-Line League," Sporting Goods Business, July 1992, p. 24.
  • Best, Patricia, "A Dynasty Divided," Maclean's, May 18, 1987, p. 41.
  • Booth, Amy, "Snow Business Gives Company Something To Smile About," Financial Post Magazine, December 24, 1983, p. 36.
  • Dunn, Brian, "Canstar Rolling Its Way to Growth," SportStyle, June 14, 1993, p. 16.
  • Emerman, S. R., "Nike, Inc.--Company Report," Dean Witter Reynolds, INVESTEXT, July 7, 1995.
  • Ingram, Matthew, "Canstar Takes a Shot at New Game," Financial Times of Canada, September 30, 1991, p. 6.
  • "In-line Skating Still on a Roll: No Longer Considered a Fad, Sport Will Get Boost from Nike," Chicago Sun Times, February 9, 1995, p. 48.
  • King, Harriet, "Nike in Accord To Purchase Hockey Equipment Maker," The New York Times, December 15, 1994, p. D4.
  • Kryhul, Angela, "Quebec Firm Gets Canada Hush Puppies License," Footwear News, December 25, 1989, p. 20.
  • Lefton, Terry, "Nike Seeks To Ice Dance with Bauer Skates," Brandweek, October 3, 1994, p. 1.
  • Low, Kathleen, "Pony Canada Realigned in Multifaceted Deal," Footwear News, October 29, 1984, p. 2.
  • Marks, Anita, "Swoosh on Ice," Business Journal-Portland, October 21, 1994, p. 1.
  • ------, "Nike Shells Out $395 Million for Canadian King of Hockey Gear, Business Journal-Portland, December 16, 1994, p. 1.
  • McDougall, Bruce, "Driven by Design," Canadian Business, January 1991, pp. 48-53.
  • Mills, Joshua, "Enthusiasm for Hockey Looks Like Good News for Skate Makers," The New York Times, February 22, 1994, p. C4.
  • Munk, Nina, "Hockey in the Sun," Forbes, August 15, 1994, p. 95.
  • Pesky, Greg, "Starting Line-Up," Sporting Goods Business, September 1994, p. 31.
  • ------, "Pierre Boivin: President and CEO, Canstar Sports Inc.," Sporting Goods Business, January 1995, p. 46.
  • Robinson, Allan, "Warrington's Hush Puppies Have a Very Determined Daddy," Financial Post Magazine, July 15, 1978, p. 17.
  • Waters, Jennifer, "In-Line Skating Industry Is Still on a Big Roll," Minneapolis-St. Paul City Business, December 8, 1995, p. 1.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 16. St. James Press, 1997.

Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

$1.00

VIntage Skates, JELINEK, CCM, LANGE, BAUER

Oakville / Halton Region 03/01/2022

I have a number of pairs of vintage skates for sales. Some are Wall Hangers while other can still be worn for a skate. #1 - Ladies White skates SZ 10 - $25.00 #2 -TruLine Custom Sz 9 - $20.00 #3 - Regulation Samson Sz 12 - $20.00 #4 - Brand Unknown Sz 10 - $20.00.SOLD SOLD SOLD SOLD #5 - Jelinek Size 11 - $20.00 #6 - Lange size 81/2 - $20.00 (no liners) #7 - CCM Sz 10 - $20.00 #8 - Brand unknown, all leather $25.00 #9 - Bauer Blazer 66 Sz 10 - $15.00 #10 - Olympic Sz 9 - $20.00 #11 - Jelinek, ...
Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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    As we discussed in The History of Hockey Skates, Part I, the 1800s saw a boom in ice skating as a form of recreation, which drove advances in skate technology. The rise of ice hockey as a sport kick-started a period of innovation that began with the very first skate designed specifically for hockey: the Starr Hockey Skate, which was introduced in 1866. Starr’s hockey skate featured a wider blade, which was rocker-shaped rather than straight, and rounded at the front and back. This allowed for the tighter turns and sudden stops and starts that are hallmarks of ice hockey. Around 1900, Starr introduced the first “tube skate,” in which the blade was held by a tubular carrier, which then attached to the boot. The Starr Hockey Skate remained popular among hockey players well into the 1920s.

    Proliferation of Skate Makers

    The first two decades of the 20th century saw the launch of many more hockey skate manufacturers. In 1899, Toronto’s CCM—Canadian Cycle & Motor Company—began producing bicycles and automobiles. Looking for new businesses, they launched a line of ice skates in 1905. The CCM Automobile line of ice skates got its name because the blades were made from metal left over from the manufacturing of Russell motor cars.

    That same year, a Canadian shoemaker named George Tackaberry built a pair of ice skates for his neighbor, a hockey defenseman named Joe Hall, who had complained that he couldn’t find skates that could last a whole season. Applying his boot-making skills, Tackaberry used kangaroo leather to build a boot with a reinforced heel and toe, as well as a thicker tongue. He also lowered the top of the boot two inches to improve mobility. Once other players saw Hall’s new skates, Tackaberry was in demand, and he was soon selling skates as fast as he could make them.

    CCM dominated the ice hockey market until the late 1920s, when the Bauer family—owners of the Western Shoe Company in Kitchener, Ontario—began producing the first skates in which the blade was permanently attached to the boot. The company’s signature model, the Bauer Supreme, came on the market in 1933. It was immediately popular, and Bauer became the major competitor of CCM. In response, CMM purchased the Tackaberry brand in 1937 and introduced the legendary CCM Tacks line of hockey skates. Both the Bauer Supreme and CCM Tacks are still made today, although in much-improved and updated versions.

    Eventually, skates from European makers such as the Swiss company Graf—which began producing hockey skates in 1937—became available in North America. These imports were among the reasons that Starr went out of business in 1938, unable to compete in a difficult market during tough economic times.

    Popularity Fuels Skate-Making Innovation

    Very little changed over the next few decades, with Bauer and CCM dominating the market, although other companies sprang up and disappeared. Hockey skates continued to be made with leather boots and tubular blades exclusively. The rise in popularity of hockey in the USA from the late 1960s through the 1970s—as the NHL went from the “original six” teams in 1967 to 21 teams in 1980—spurred an expansion of the market and a series of innovations in hockey skate technology.

    Molded-Plastic Skate Boots

    The 1970s saw the introduction of molded-plastic skate boots, based on ski boot designs. Lange first introduced these models, featuring a hinged plastic boot and a foam liner, and they were endorsed by NHL players, including Phil Esposito. The skates forced the wearer to lean forward slightly, which helped them maintain a good hockey stance. But the plastic boots were quite heavy, and some players didn’t like how they looked. The molded-plastic boot concept was taken up in the 1980s by companies such as Micron and Bauer, whose Turbo model was very popular.

    Tuuk Blade Holders

    Bauer’s revolutionary plastic Tuuk 2000 blade holders made history in 1976. They replaced the tubular blades in use since the turn of the century, making skates lighter and allowing easier changing of the blades. Within a few years, most other manufacturers had gone to plastic holders as well, although some players still preferred their tubes. Bauer surged in popularity, while CCM struggled, eventually going bankrupt in 1983.

    Hockey Skate Brand Consolidation

    But this was not the end of the CCM brand, and the next two decades saw a consolidation of brands—as smaller companies changed hands and were absorbed by larger brands—and the brief entry of sports giants, including Nike and Reebok, into the skate manufacturing landscape. Nike purchased Bauer in 1995, then sold it in 2005. Bauer’s parent company is now Peak Achievement Athletics, Inc. After its bankruptcy in the early 1980s, CCM went through a series of owners and parent companies before finally being bought by Reebok in 2004. The next year, Reebok was purchased by Adidas, who sold the CCM brand to a private equity firm in 2017. Today CCM and Bauer once again dominate the hockey skate market, as they did through much of the 20th century.

    In Part III, we will outline the remarkable achievements in boot and blade technology in the 21st century.

    Questions? Comments?

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Lange hockey skates for sale - agree

    As we discussed in The History of Hockey Skates, Part I, the 1800s saw a boom in ice skating as a form of recreation, which drove advances in skate technology. The rise of ice hockey as a sport kick-started a period of innovation that began with the very first skate designed specifically for hockey: the Starr Hockey Skate, which was introduced in 1866. Starr’s hockey skate featured a wider blade, which was rocker-shaped rather than straight, and rounded at the front and back. This allowed for the tighter turns and sudden stops and starts that are hallmarks of ice hockey. Around 1900, Starr introduced the first “tube skate,” in which the blade was held by a tubular carrier, which then attached to the boot. The Starr Hockey Skate remained popular among hockey players well into the 1920s.

    Proliferation of Skate Makers

    The first two decades of the 20th century saw the launch of many more hockey skate manufacturers. In 1899, Toronto’s CCM—Canadian Cycle & Motor Company—began producing bicycles and automobiles. Looking for new businesses, they launched a line of ice skates in 1905. The CCM Automobile line of ice skates got its name because the blades were made from metal left over from the manufacturing of Russell motor cars.

    That same year, a Canadian shoemaker named George Tackaberry built a pair of ice skates for his neighbor, a hockey defenseman named Joe Hall, who had complained that he couldn’t find skates that could last a whole season. Applying his boot-making skills, Tackaberry used kangaroo leather to build a boot with a reinforced heel and toe, as well as a thicker tongue. He also lowered the top of the boot two inches to improve mobility. Once other players saw Hall’s new skates, Tackaberry was in demand, and he was soon selling skates as fast as he could make them.

    CCM dominated the ice hockey market until the late 1920s, when the Bauer family—owners of the Western Shoe Company in Kitchener, Ontario—began producing the first skates in which the blade was permanently attached to the boot. The company’s signature model, the Bauer Supreme, came on the market in 1933. It was immediately popular, and Bauer became the major competitor of CCM. In response, CMM purchased the Tackaberry brand in 1937 and introduced the legendary CCM Tacks line of hockey skates. Both the Bauer Supreme and CCM Tacks are still made today, although in much-improved and updated versions.

    Eventually, skates from European makers such as the Swiss company Graf—which began producing hockey skates in 1937—became available in North America. These imports were among the reasons that Starr went out of business in 1938, unable to compete in a difficult market during tough economic times.

    Popularity Fuels Skate-Making Innovation

    Very little changed over the next few decades, with Bauer and CCM dominating the market, although other companies sprang up and disappeared. Hockey skates continued to be made with leather boots and tubular blades exclusively. The rise in popularity of hockey in the USA from the late 1960s through the 1970s—as the NHL went from the “original six” teams in 1967 to 21 teams in 1980—spurred an expansion of the market and a series of innovations in hockey skate technology.

    Molded-Plastic Skate Boots

    The 1970s saw the introduction of molded-plastic skate boots, based on ski boot designs. Lange first introduced these models, featuring a hinged plastic boot and a foam liner, and they were endorsed by NHL players, including Phil Esposito. The skates forced the wearer to lean forward slightly, which helped them maintain a good hockey stance. But the plastic boots were quite heavy, and some players didn’t like how they looked. The molded-plastic boot concept was taken up in the 1980s by companies such as Micron and Bauer, whose Turbo model was very popular.

    Tuuk Blade Holders

    Bauer’s revolutionary plastic Tuuk 2000 blade holders made history in 1976. They replaced the tubular blades in use since the turn of the century, making skates lighter and allowing easier changing of the blades. Within a few years, most other manufacturers had gone to plastic holders as well, although some players still preferred their tubes. Bauer surged in popularity, while CCM struggled, eventually going bankrupt in 1983.

    Hockey Skate Brand Consolidation

    But this was not the end of the CCM brand, and the next two decades saw a consolidation of brands—as smaller companies changed hands and were absorbed by larger brands—and the brief entry of sports giants, including Nike and Reebok, into the skate manufacturing landscape. Nike purchased Bauer in 1995, then sold it in 2005. Bauer’s parent company is now Peak Achievement Athletics, Inc. After its bankruptcy in the early 1980s, CCM went through a series of owners and parent companies before finally being bought by Reebok in 2004. The next year, Reebok was purchased by Adidas, who sold the CCM brand to a private equity firm in 2017. Today CCM and Bauer once again dominate the hockey skate market, as they did through much of the 20th century.

    In Part III, we will outline the remarkable achievements in boot and blade technology in the 21st century.

    Questions? Comments?

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    LANGE Freestyle Figure Skate- Sr

    Style/Model #: LANGEFRSTYSR

    $39.99$99.99

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    This is a nice recreational skate with quick easy closure. Perfect for the local rink or out on the pond during those cool winters.
    Lange Freestyle Figure Skate- Sr
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    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Canstar Sports Inc. History



    Address:

    5705 Ferrier Street
    Suite 200
    Ville Mont-Royal, Quebec H4P 1N3
    Canada


    Telephone:(514) 738-3011
    Fax:(514) 738-5178

    Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Nike, Inc.
    Incorporated:1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd.
    Employees: 1,830
    Sales: C$201.59 million (1993)
    SICs: 3949 Sporting and Athletic Goods, Not Elsewhere Classified

    Company History:

    Called the "Canadian king of hockey gear," Canstar Sports Inc. ranks as one of the world's leading ice skate manufacturers. According to an August 1994 Forbes article, the company's Bauer and Cooper brands are as widely recognized in Canada as Kleenex and Xerox are in the United States. Based in a suburb of Montreal, the company parlayed its strengths in hockey skates into a strong showing in the in-line skate market in the early 1990s. By that time, Canstar's stable of brands included Bauer, Micron, Lange, Mega, and Daoust ice skates; Flak and Cooper hockey equipment; and Bauer in-line skates. With U.S. sales of $36.4 million, the Bauer brand ranked fourth among in-line skate brands in 1993. Canstar was acquired by master marketer Nike, Inc. in the latter company's largest purchase ever, a $395 million transaction.

    Foundation and Corporate Developmentin the Mid-20th Century

    The first pair of Bauer skates was hand-sewn in the early 1930s. By the mid-1950s, the Bauer line was the world's top seller of hockey skates, but was just one division of shoe-making conglomerate Greb Industries Ltd., best known as the first international licensee of Hush Puppies shoes. Greb also produced Kodiak boots and Collins safety shoes. Family-owned until 1974, Greb was acquired that year by Warrington Products Ltd., which was in turn controlled by Cemp Investments Ltd. The transaction made Bauer a member of the Bronfman family holdings, whose Seagram's Co. was the world's biggest liquor company. ("Cemp" was an acronym for the Bronfman heirs: Charles, Edgar, Minda, and Phyllis.) Warrington had been incorporated in 1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd. and went public under the new name two years later.

    After an early 1970s surge, Bauer and its parent companies suffered through a severe contraction in the later years of the decade. From 1971 to 1982, Warrington chalked up five annual losses and its stock plummeted from $8.75 at its initial public offering to less than $1 by 1983. Bauer laid off more than one-third of its workforce and closed plants in Maine and Quebec. With the financial backing of Cemp, Warrington tried to diversify out of its free-fall, acquiring a match producer, a luggage company, an appliance maker, and a plastic pipe business.

    Sweeping Change Marks 1980s

    The 1980s ushered in an era of sweeping change at the company. Although not yet affiliated with the firm, Icaro Olivieri was in many respects the orchestrator of its transformation. Born in 1940, this native of northern Italy apprenticed in his father's tool shop during the 1950s. Olivieri's work with hinges and springs inspired his 1964 design of an improved ski boot fastener. His buckle was quickly adopted in place of traditional laces. Without the benefit of formal training, Olivieri then invented injection molding equipment custom-made for the production of plastic ski boots. Within just a few years, the inventor's company had captured a commanding lead in the market for boot molds and metal buckles.

    After touring Warrington's rather old-fashioned skate factory in 1975, Olivieri saw an opportunity to adapt his new technology to the hockey skate industry. The Italian founded a plant in Montreal and began churning out his Micron brand skates and Tyrol ski boots, the sleek, black plastic styling of which offered a significant challenge to Bauer's long-standing dominance of the market. Several years of intensifying competition culminated in the 1981 merger of the two competitors under the Canadian company's name with Olivieri as chairman. The union created Canada's largest sporting goods firm and signaled Warrington's strategic refocus on that sector.

    Given his own creative background, Olivieri sought to keep Canstar in the vanguard of design. Under his direction, the company consistently invested 2 percent to 3 percent of revenues in research and development. An intensive three-year study of hockey skates and skating culminated in the 1987 launch of the Micron Mega, a skate whose quality won Canstar the devotion of 70 percent of National Hockey League (NHL) pros. Even if they were not wearing Bauer or Micron, 90 percent of NHL players used Canstar's Tuuk or ICM blades. Commenting to The New York Times, analyst William J. Chisholm noted that Canstar's "sophisticated engineering, technology and research" gave it a decided edge over its competitors.

    Warrington also augmented its line via an acquisition spree during this period. From 1981 to 1987, the company added Caper, Trappeur, Spalding, and Kerma brand ski equipment; Santana, Harvard, and (under Canadian license) Pony brand footwear; Helmetec brand helmets; and Flak brand hockey equipment to its family of sporting goods.

    But this rapid diversification proved "a bust," in the words of Forbes magazine's Nina Monk. By 1987, Warrington wavered on the brink of disaster; it lost $34 million that year and was burdened with $90 million in debt. At the same time, intrafamilial differences among the Bronfmans precipitated the breakup of the Cemp investment group. That year, Warrington sold Greb Inc. and its line of fashion shoes, keeping Bauer and the sporting goods. In 1988, Olivieri and investment group Dynamic Capital Corp. stepped in to execute a leveraged buyout of the Bronfmans' 30 percent interest in Warrington. The chairman turned majority stakeholder renamed the firm Canstar Sports Inc. and brought in turnaround expert Gerald Wasserman.

    Wasserman gave Nina Monk of Forbes magazine a curt evaluation of the company he joined, saying that it "had great brands but not much else." He divested Canstar's shoe and ski businesses to concentrate on hockey equipment, and, by 1989, the company was earning $8.7 million (US $6 million) on sales of $98.26 million (US $71 million). According to a 1991 article in Financial Times of Canada, Canstar sold nearly 50 percent, or 1.2 million pairs, of the 2.5 million ice skates sold around the world.

    Growth Through Focused Diversificationin the 1990s

    It was the perfect time to focus on skates. Ice hockey enjoyed unprecedented popularity in the early 1990s. Faye Landes, an analyst with Smith Barney (New York), told Business Journal-Portland, "Hockey is the hottest thing out there." Part of the resurgence was credited to the NHL, which achieved new heights of popularity under a more forward-looking team of leaders in the mid-1990s. Canstar's continued dedication to ice hockey was exemplified by its 1990 acquisition of Cooper Canada Ltd.'s hockey division. The country's premiere producer of protective hockey gear, Cooper offered a 1,700-item selection of pads, gloves, and helmets. Canstar acquired the Daoust ice skate business from A. Lambert International Inc. for $30 million in 1992 and launched Canstar Apparel Inc., a manufacturer of hockey jerseys and socks, the following spring.

    Given its substantial position in Canada's hockey skate market, Canstar cautiously sought new avenues for growth in the early 1990s, taking special aim at the burgeoning in-line skate market. Although ice hockey skates remained Canstar's core, accounting for more than one-third of annual sales in the mid-1990s, in-line skates were touted as the key to the company's future.

    In-line skates are essentially a hockey-style boot with four roller skate-type wheels mounted in line from toe to heel. Although there's considerable debate over the origins of the in-line skate (some trace it to Yoshisada Horiuchi's 1969 development of a prototype, whereas others say it was first created in the 1800s), there is a general consensus that Minnesota's Scott Olson launched the modern industry in the early 1980s with his "Rollerblade" brand skate. Initially intended for hockey players to practice and keep in shape during the warm summer months, in-line skating soon spread to the general public. The sport's widespread popularity was credited to its combination of recreation, fitness, and competitive values.

    From 1990 to 1994, the number of in-line skaters in North America increased from 2 million to nearly 20 million and wholesale revenues multiplied from $75 million in 1989 to $500 million in 1994, making in-line skating the fastestgrowing sport in the United States. By 1995, the number of in-line skaters surpassed the number of participants in football, baseball, and soccer. Industry observers predicted that climb to continue, albeit at a slower pace, through the late 1990s.

    Canstar got into the market in the late 1980s. In-line or off-ice skates grew from 2 percent of the firm's annual sales in 1990 to 18 percent by 1993. In 1992, the company became a founding sponsor of the 24-team professional Roller Hockey International League, as well as amateur leagues, in an effort to promote in-line skating. A 1995 brief in the Chicago Sun Times noted that roller hockey was the fastest-growing segment of the in-line market. The company also hoped to piggyback in-line skate sales on the growing popularity of the NHL, focusing especially on nontraditional skating areas in the southern United States, especially Florida, Texas, and California, where new team franchises were granted in the early 1990s.

    In addition to its diversifications into related sporting goods, Canstar hoped that international expansion would provide a new avenue for growth. In 1993, the company acquired a controlling interest in Canstar Sverige AB and established an $8 million ice and in-line skate factory in Czechoslovakia. Canstar added British figure skate blade manufacturer Hatersley & Davidson to its roster of companies in 1994, thereby fulfilling two goals, diversification and geographic expansion, with one purchase. From 1990 to 1996, the geographic distribution of Canstar's revenues shifted from 70 percent domestic to about one-third indigenous.

    In 1992, both Wasserman and President and Chief Operating Officer Donald C. MacMartin abruptly resigned. In 1994, Olivieri tapped Pierre Boivin, former president and CEO of Weider Sporting Goods and noted Wasserman follower, to become Canstar's president. Despite the management upheaval, Canstar enjoyed rapidly rising sales and profits in the early 1990s. After declining from $105.9 million in 1988 to $98.26 million in 1989, sales more than doubled to $201.6 million in 1993. Profits increased from $3 million in 1988 to $15.33 million.

    Rumors that the company was being targeted for acquisition by footwear giant Nike began to fly in mid-1994, when the latter company signed on to sponsor the National Hockey League. After months of denial from both parties, that December Nike announced that the two companies had come to an agreement. Icaro Olivieri would sell his 46 percent stake in Canstar to the American shoemaker. The $395 million purchase price paid by Nike to acquire Canstar made it Nike's largest acquisition to date.

    The union promised benefits for both companies. Canstar gave Nike an instant, well-respected and well-established position in the fast-growing ice hockey and in-line skating markets. Canstar became part of a widely praised marketing and distribution powerhouse, but Nike president Philip Knight vowed that the US $4 billion giant would not interfere with its $200 million subsidiary's autonomy. Pierre Boivin praised the merger in a 1995 interview with Greg Pesky of Sporting Goods Business, saying, "I have seldom seen such a perfect marriage between two companies."

    Boivin predicted that Canstar's sales would top $400 million and Bauer's share of the in-line market would increase from about 7 percent to 32 percent by the end of the 1990s. Having long enjoyed a dominant position in the hockey market, the company planned to focus its acquisition strategy on figure skating, apparel, and vertical integration. Boivin expected to target Eastern and Western Europe, South America, and Asia for geographic growth in the late 1990s.

    Principal Subsidiaries: Canstar Sports Group Inc.; Canstar Sports U.S.A., Inc.; Canstar Sports AG; Canstar Italia S.p.A.; Canstar Apparel Inc.; Canstar Sverige AB; Helmtec Industries Inc.; Helmtec U.S.A., Inc.

    Further Reading:

    • "Bauer Named Sponsor of Pro In-Line League," Sporting Goods Business, July 1992, p. 24.
    • Best, Patricia, "A Dynasty Divided," Maclean's, May 18, 1987, p. 41.
    • Booth, Amy, "Snow Business Gives Company Something To Smile About," Financial Post Magazine, December 24, 1983, p. 36.
    • Dunn, Brian, "Canstar Rolling Its Way to Growth," SportStyle, June 14, 1993, p. 16.
    • Emerman, S. R., "Nike, Inc.--Company Report," Dean Witter Reynolds, INVESTEXT, July 7, 1995.
    • Ingram, Matthew, "Canstar Takes a Shot at New Game," Financial Times of Canada, September 30, 1991, p. 6.
    • "In-line Skating Still on a Roll: No Longer Considered a Fad, Sport Will Get Boost from Nike," Chicago Sun Times, February 9, 1995, p. 48.
    • King, Harriet, "Nike in Accord To Purchase Hockey Equipment Maker," The New York Times, December 15, 1994, p. D4.
    • Kryhul, Angela, "Quebec Firm Gets Canada Hush Puppies License," Footwear News, December 25, 1989, p. 20.
    • Lefton, Terry, "Nike Seeks To Ice Dance with Bauer Skates," Brandweek, October 3, 1994, p. 1.
    • Low, Kathleen, "Pony Canada Realigned in Multifaceted Deal," Footwear News, October 29, 1984, p. 2.
    • Marks, Anita, "Swoosh on Ice," Business Journal-Portland, October 21, 1994, p. 1.
    • ------, "Nike Shells Out $395 Million for Canadian King of Hockey Gear, Business Journal-Portland, December 16, 1994, p. 1.
    • McDougall, Bruce, "Driven by Design," Canadian Business, January 1991, pp. 48-53.
    • Mills, Joshua, "Enthusiasm for Hockey Looks Like Good News for Skate Makers," The New York Times, February 22, 1994, p. C4.
    • Munk, Nina, "Hockey in the Sun," Forbes, August 15, 1994, p. 95.
    • Pesky, Greg, "Starting Line-Up," Sporting Goods Business, September 1994, p. 31.
    • ------, "Pierre Boivin: President and CEO, Canstar Sports Inc.," Sporting Goods Business, January 1995, p. 46.
    • Robinson, Allan, "Warrington's Hush Puppies Have a Very Determined Daddy," Financial Post Magazine, July 15, 1978, p. 17.
    • Waters, Jennifer, "In-Line Skating Industry Is Still on a Big Roll," Minneapolis-St. Paul City Business, December 8, 1995, p. 1.

    Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 16. St. James Press, 1997.

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    Lange (ski boots)

    Lange is a major producer of ski boots used in alpine (downhill) skiing. They introduced the world's first plastic ski boots in 1962, and a greatly improved model aimed at the racing market in 1965. After several World Cup and Olympics wins in 1967 and 1968 made them a must-have on the circuit, Lange has remained a force in the racing market ever since. Their boots have equipped five times as many World Cup medal winners as any other brand into the 2000s. The front-entry design introduced by Lange is used by almost every modern ski boot to this day. Lange remains a major brand worldwide.

    Bob Lange had been experimenting with plastic reinforced ski boots as early as 1958, but it took some time before the basic design was made usable. The first examples from 1962, built by Lange employee Dave Luensmann, used ABS shells and laces for closure, but were not very successful. A follow-up design released in volume in the winter of 1965/66 used a new thermoplastic shell, hinged cuff, and latching buckles, and became the first commercially successful replacement for leather boots. By 1970 they were almost universal on the racing circuit, and selling hundreds of thousands of examples as the world's leading ski boot brand. Lange entered the hockey market during the 1970s. Lange skates were an outgrowth of their plastic ski boots. Phil Esposito endorsed and used Lange skates. They went out of favor due to their weight non-traditional looks but had the advantages that they were comfortable to wear and offered more protection than traditional skates.

    A major technical misstep in 1970 led to financial difficulties and the eventual sale of the company to Garcia in 1973. Under the new ownership, the company continued development of the classic front-opening ski boot design. Over a series of models, the cuff began extending up the calf of the leg to greatly improve directional control and reduce lower-leg injuries. Garcia ran into financial difficulties of their own, and their suite of ski products was purchased by the owner of Rossignol in 1978. Under their direction, Lange released the famous bright-orange XL-R and Z designs of the 1980s, versions of which remained the racer's choice well into the 1990s. Modern Lange boots have changed little in design since these models.

    History[edit]

    Downhill develops[edit]

    Alpine skiing developed as a specialization from what was generally a cross-country sport. The downhill portions were shallow, short and had to be skied up, so the majority of the day would be spent in the cross-country striding motion.[1]

    As techniques diverged, especially with the widespread introduction of ski lifts, the market for customized downhill equipment rose. A major advance came with the introduction of the Kandahar binding in the 1930s, which allowed the boot to be locked down to the ski during the downhill portions. This provided more control over "edging", rolling the ski onto its side to generate turning forces. The introduction of the Head Standard ski during the winter of 1950–1951 furthered this evolution by allowing the skis to hold an edge against the snow with much more force, dramatically improving turning performance. They were such a great improvement, the Standard was known as "The Cheater" because it allowed any skier to turn with ease.[2]

    Like the skis and bindings, ski boots had also evolved from earlier cross-country styles. By the 1950s these were essentially unchanged from the 1800s, consisting of a thick sole with a thinner upper shell of leather, similar to a normal winter boot. A flexible sole allowed the boot to bend forward at the toe to allow the cross-country striding motion. The upper cuff provided little sideways support, as this had not been a serious concern for cross-country. Ideally, for downhill skiing the boot would be rigid side-to-side to transmit rotational forces to the ski, allowing the skier to edge the ski directly. Moreover, in the downhill role there was no need for forward flex of the sole, which was clamped down anyway.

    Downhill before Lange[edit]

    This need led to downhill boots that retained the same basic shoe-like style of earlier designs, but were built much stiffer to allow for greater control. These had the serious drawback of being extremely uncomfortable. This was especially true during the breaking-in period, which might last weeks. One solution had the skier lace up the boots and stand in hot water in a bathtub for an hour to soak, then walk around to allow the leather to move to fit the skier's foot. This had the disadvantage of greatly softening the boot, allowing it to wear out much more quickly.

    Even if this hot water fitting step wasn't used, strong skiers would wear out their boots in months as the leather softened, and mere weeks if they raced them. This left only a short period of time between the painful break-in period and the time when the boots were too soft to provide good control over the skis.Jean-Claude Killy took to having Michel Arpin ski in his boots while they broke in, giving them to Killy to ski for the few weeks before they wore out. Another solution to improve lateral control was the "long thong", a leather strap wrapped around the boot and lower leg, which came at the cost of eliminating any sort of quick release.

    Lange's first attempts[edit]

    Robert B. ("Bob") Lange flew Lockheed P-38 Lightning airplanes for the United States Army Air Forces before leaving to earn a degree at Harvard University, where he studied economics and engineering. It was during this time that he took up skiing, and like many other beginner skiers of the era, found himself dismayed by the relative antiquity of the designs. (Contrast with the Head Standard ski).

    Lange had another problem to solve; his size 9-1/2 triple-E wide feet demanded custom boots, which he ordered from Peter Limmer. These were not stiff enough for his liking, so Lange attempted to fix this by cutting strips of fiberglass left over from covering his boat, and gluing them to his boots using polyester resin. This 1948 attempt is the earliest recorded attempt at a plastic-reinforced boot.

    After graduating in 1949 he joined his family insurance business in Dubuque, Iowa, but did this only for a short time. Lange opened Hawkeye Plastics Corporation in the basement of the old Brunswick Radio Company factory, which had gone bankrupt during the Great Depression. In 1955 he received his first contract, from the Eska Company also located in Dubuque, when General Motors asked Eska for 30,000 kiddie-cars in the form of the 1956 Corvette. Lange's company produced the plastic Corvette bodies for Eska. Over the next few years the company produced a variety of fiberglass products, including hula-hoops and the interiors for refrigerators.

    Throughout, Lange continued to experiment with improvements to ski boots, buying numerous pairs to cut them up and see if they could be re-enforced to make them stronger. Lange was not the only designer to attempt this, and several boots soaked in epoxy or other glues were available in the 1950s. None of these offered any great improvement, and lacing them up was even more difficult than before. Lange had built several models with epoxy or polyester by 1958, later claiming to have skied a successful all-plastic boot in 1957.

    Royalite[edit]

    Fiberglass simply didn't have the right combination of features for an all-plastic boot. As part of the Corvette contract, Lange's Hawkeye Plastics had sub-contracted the seats to another local plastics company, run by David Luensmann. Luensmann had made the seats for the cars by vacuum-molding Royalite, an ABS plastic from Uniroyal. When Lange's Hawkeye went out of business, enough of this material was left over to experiment with boot designs, and Lange asked Luensmann to try it.

    Luensmann used strips of the material in a heat press to melt them into a single shell. He handed the results to Lange the next year, in the summer of 1961. After trying them that winter, Lange asked Luensmann to join him in a new company dedicated to making plastic boots. For mass production, the two built a vacuum press to shape the cuffs from larger sections of Royalite. This produced an extremely stiff boot suitable only for the most powerful racers. Attempting to solve the problem, they struck on the solution of molding the boot in two separate parts and joining them through rivets on either side, at the level of the ankle. This allowed the boot to retain all the lateral stiffness of the original design, while allowing the forward flex to be better controlled.

    The new design, in blue and white, was released in limited numbers in 1962. Several people tried them out and reported a number of minor design issues, especially the problems lacing them up which often required two people. Levered buckles were an obvious solution, first invented by Hans Martin and introduced to the market in 1955 on the Henke Speedfit. However, Henke held the patent on the concept and Lange was reluctant to pay for a license.

    By the winter of 1963 they had managed to fill only a small number of their orders and even smaller number were in use. These few boots suffered a number of mechanical failures that were traced to the poor performance of ABS plastic in low temperatures.

    Adiprene[edit]

    The Lange Swinger, part of the "2nd generation" lineup from around 1968. These early examples clearly trace their ancestry to the leather boots they replaced, including a leather-like mottled surface treatment.

    In late 1962 DuPont provided a solution, a new pourable polyurethane plastic known as Adiprene. This material was much less affected by the cold, but had the distinct disadvantage that it could not be vacuum-molded, as it needed to be used in liquid form. Instead, it had to be heated and poured into a mold and then allowed to cool and set. This made it much more time consuming to use in production, but the advantages were too great to ignore. The company spent most of 1963 trying to solve the production problems, ignoring the growing list of orders for the older ABS models.

    In the end, no production of the new design was undertaken that year, leading to friction with his sales partners. In 1965 Lange finally added Henke-like buckles to his boots when that company gave up the patent. Not only did the buckle make it easy to close even the stiffest boots, the plastic spread the load across the entire cuff, applying even pressure to the foot. Leather designs tended to distort where the buckles attached, leading to tight spots on the foot and eventually damaging the leather.

    It was not until 1965 they had built a new molding machine known as "Mickey Mouse" that could inject the Adiprene to speed production. This system was only marginally functional, and only 600 pairs of boots were produced that year. It was not until early 1966 that full production was able to start and 1,000 pairs had been completed. By the end of the year the number stood at 6,000, doubling in 1967 to 12,000, and again in 1968 to 25,000.

    By this time, Rosemount Engineering had introduced their own all-synthetic boot. Unlike the Lange, the Rosemount design was made of rigid fiberglass and split open in two parts to put it on. Like Lange, they were only able to produce small numbers of boots, about 900 pair, for the 1965/66 season.[13] Many sources make the claim that Rosemount was first to introduce a plastic boot commercially, but it appears that both were available in limited numbers at the same time. In any event, Lange's earlier Royalite models clearly pre-date any of the Rosemount examples.

    Commercial success[edit]

    1968's Lady Lange Competite was the first women's-specific race boot, the companion to the Comp model. It differs from the Comp in that it uses a single large flap over the front of the boot, a design note that did not continue on future models.

    Production was not the only issue; the new design also needed a test market to popularize it. Lange approached the United States ski team hoping to have them test the new design. However, they were being supplied by Heirling, and weren't interested.

    In January 1966, Lange called Dave Jacob, who was at that time coaching the Canadian ski team. Lange asked if Jacob would be willing to try the new boots with the Canadian team. Jacob agreed and several team members tried them out, but he noted that "they were really bad boots." Lange paid Jacob's way to Dubuque to help implement solutions for his concerns.

    In June 1966 five pairs of boots incorporating these changes were shipped to Mount Hood, where the Canadian team was training. Gerry Rinaldi, Rod Hebron and Nancy Greene tried them on and approved. Soon after, Greene won the Golden Rose Race on the new boots. Lange then flew to the 1966 World Championships in Portillo, Chile and handed out examples to anyone willing to test them. He carried around a tape recorder, asking for any suggestions on how to improve the design. When Hebron and Suzy Chaffee showed dramatic improvement during the races, the new boot became an object of serious curiosity. Curiosity changed to must-have when Greene started winning races in 1967 on the newly formed World Cup circuit, and eventually took the gold medal.[16]

    Five medals were won on Lange boots at the 1968 Winter Olympics, making them the most-winning brand of the competition. At the Olympics, Lange signed a deal with Dynamic to produce their line of skis for the North American market. The company went public in 1969, and used the proceeds to purchase land in Broomfield, Colorado, building a 40,000 square foot (3,700 m2) boot factory, a 42,000 square foot (3,900 m2) ski factory, and a 20,000 square foot (1,900 m2) warehouse. The new factories dramatically improved production, and over the 1969 season alone the company shipped 100,000 pairs of boots.

    1969 was the breakthrough year for the company. Three models were on the market to serve different performance levels, the Standard for recreational skiing, the Pro for more demanding use, and the Comp for downhill racing. There was only one competitor, Rosemont, but their product was based on fiberglass and used a side-opening system that was clearly inferior to Lange's boots and could only compete on the low-end, in spite of a high-end price. By the end of the season, Lange was being sold at hundreds of stores across the country at prices no one else could demand.

    To reach new markets, plans for a new boot factory in Montebelluna, Italy started, along with another in Montreal to produce ice skates using similar concepts and materials. The Montreal plant was later expanded to sell ski boots to Europe as well, avoiding import tariffs on US products. On top of this, at the 1970 World Championships at Val Gardena, Billy Kidd won the gold medal in Combined on Lange boots, and Lange or Dynamic took medals in every event, men and women's.

    Lange-flo[edit]

    Alden Hanson of Dow Chemical contacted Lange in 1970 to tell them about a new material the company had invented. The new plastic retained a putty-like texture in any weather, and Hanson's son had used it to make boots with a layer of the material sandwiched between a normal leather boot and a hard fiberglass shell. The material was a natural fit with Lange's plastic boots, fitting between the liner and shell.

    When Lange staff tried it, they unanimously supported it. The timing proved difficult, however; 200,000 pairs of boots were planned for the 1970–1971 season, and if they were going to use the newly christened "Lange-flo" it would have to go into production before there was time for extensive testing. Lange decided to press ahead, putting it in all of their boots for the next model year.

    The boots were launched with a provocative advertising campaign of a woman wearing the new boots and a cat-suit with the same boot buckles holding it closed, in place of a zipper or buttons. The only wording simply stated "soft inside".[19] This was the first of a series of provocative ads now referred to simply as "the Lange girls".[20]

    Although the Lange-flo worked, the vinyl liner that held it proved to crack after hard use,[N 1] and let the Lange-flo squeeze into the boot. The solution was to place the Lange-flo in a separate plastic bag outside the liner, but as the liners were sown into the boot, this required a recall to re-fit them. About 20,000 of the 200,000 boots shipped that season returned to the factory.[N 2] In their attempt to deal with the problem in a timely fashion, new staff were added and theft became a problem. Bad record keeping and lost tags led to many boots being shipped to the wrong people. Many simply never received their boots back.

    At about the same time, Dynamic started protesting its agreement with Lange, while cash was needed to start the Canadian plant and introduce the new skate design. Emergency loans kept the company going through 1971, when they reported a $1.5 million loss, largely due to the warrantee work due to Lange-flo. The next year Hanson introduced their rear-entry design, the first real competitor. Lange shares continued to drop throughout.

    In 1973 a further round of funding failed, and Lange sold the company to Garcia Company, owners of the Mitchell Reel fishing tackle company and tennis brands that was building a ski portfolio. Lange signed on as a consultant to Garcia, but didn't like the results. He left the company shortly thereafter, in July 1974.

    Extending upward[edit]

    Early plastic boots, like their earlier leather cousins, rose just above the ankle and provided little support if the skier leaned forward or back. Around 1966 the French developed a new short-turn technique called avalement that stored energy by bending the tail of the ski and then using this to accelerate out of turns. This required the skier to lean back on the skis, and to support this style, skiers took to adding any number of ad-hoc solutions to add support at the back.

    During the 1970–1971 season, Jack Nagel introduced the "Jet-Stix", an aftermarket accessory designed to be used on plastic boots from Lange or Rosemont. The Jet-Stix consisted of a fiberglass extension shaped like a shoehorn that strapped on under the top buckle so it lay along the back of the calf. These allowed the skier to lean back and raise the front of the ski upward with ease.[23] Lange quickly followed with their own version, the Lange Spoiler.[24] Similar devices were common through 1970.

    In 1967 Nordica introduced a new injection-moulded "hybrid" design that wrapped a stiff shell around a conventional leather boot. The innerboot was removable for custom fit work, a major advance over Lange's cemented-in liner. This saw little interest, but Nordica followed this in 1969 with their Astral design, a direct attack on Lange. Their introduction of the bright yellow Astral Slalom in 1972, better known as the "Banana Boot", incorporated a spoiler directly into the cuff and eliminated the need for a separate device. Soon Nordica were selling 400,000 pairs a year, Lange's first serious competition in the market.

    For the 1971-1972 season, Lange introduced the "Comp II" boot, following on their earlier Comp series racing boots but incorporating the higher back similar to the Nordica design. The Comp II was soon joined by the Pro II, and then by midrange Banshee with four buckles of an improved design. This change set off an industry-wide evolution to ever-higher cuffs, culminating in the 1980s with cuffs that rise about half way to the knee. Some designs, the "knee highs", had secondary cuffs that rose to just below the knee.[26]

    Under Garcia, Lange continued to improve the boot design, while at the same time they introduced Lange branded skis based on Dynamic models, purchased the Burtski binding, and added a range of products like ski poles and goggles. Garcia became the first company to offer a complete range of ski gear as an integrated set. Throughout, Garcia's main product line remained its fishing gear, and during the mid-1970s a wave of Japanese competitors arrived and quickly pushed them out of the fishing market. The company went bankrupt in 1978, after owning Lange for only four years.

    Boix-Vives and Rossignol[edit]

    The XL-R cemented Lange's reputation as the racer's boot of choice. Modern boots are little changed from this example from the early 1980s.
    The Z-R followed the XL-R with a number of minor upgrades. The buckles lock closed, and are released by pulling on the small tabs. A control for the "cant" of the boot has been added, the small black square over the ankle. Minor changes like this followed all the way to current examples.

    When Garcia's bankruptcy put them on the market, Rossignol, the famous ski company, was looking to enter the tennis market. Rossignol purchased Garcia's existing tennis production lines and started selling off the other divisions; when Lange skis and Burt bindings failed to find a buyer they were closed down. The same fate awaited Lange boots, but Rossignol's CEO, Laurent Boix-Vives, purchased the company personally through a Swiss holding company, Ski Expansion.

    New warehouses were opened in Williston and Colchester, Vermont, where Rossignol and Dynastar skis were sent for distribution into the North American market. For a time, Dynastar skis made in the Authier factory were sold under the Lange brand in the United States. During the late 1970s, the rising United States dollar exchange rate and historically-high interest rates made United States operations increasingly expensive. Many North American ski companies found themselves unable to compete with Europe, even as the ski industry was being hit by low participation rates for the same economic reasons. In 1982 Boix-Vives closed the Garcia factories, including Lange in Colorado, moving all boot production to Lange's factory in Italy. Research and development for Lange remained in Colorado.

    In 1982 they introduced the famous bright-orange XL-R design. The XL-R had a number of improvements over earlier models. Among these was a new buckle design; previous designs generally use a metal loop attached on one side of the cuff and a buckle with a rack cut into the bottom attached to the other. For tighter settings the loop had to be inserted into a rack cut higher on the buckle, lowering the mechanical advantage and making it much harder to close. The new design moved the rack to one cuff and put the metal loop on the buckle itself. This offered steady mechanical advantage on any setting. The new four-buckle system is largely identical to any modern downhill ski boot.

    The XL-R was a runaway hit on the racing market and soon followed by the XL-S and XL-T versions for different performance levels. The XL series were also well known for the way they allowed water to leak into the boot where the lower cuffs folded over each other near the toe, and prompted many owners to cover the area with duct tape. The liners also tended to "pack down" fairly quickly, flattening out and no longer offering support. An improved version of the basic XL design was later introduced as the Z-model, which included a new low-profile locking buckle design that would not accidentally open once locked, and a small plastic tab in front of the toe flaps to prevent snow forcing its way in.

    Meanwhile, the Italian factory at Montebelluna was experimenting with a new custom-fit liner, using a thermosetting plastic called Thermofit. Pressed by rapid changes in the market, notably Salomon's introduction of their hugely successful rear-entry boot line, the Thermofit system was developed as a way to remain on the leading edge. Betting the company on the new system, it failed in testing, leaving the company with no catchy designs. Among the failed attempts to address this problem were in-boot heaters, the CFX and SPE rear-entry designs largely identical to Salomon models, and a "mid-entry" boot with cable closure, the Mid.

    Of all of these, only the mid-entry design would be at all successful the market. This design combines a traditional lower boot with a split upper cuff like that of a rear-entry design. The lower portion buckled down to provide strong support, whereas conventional rear-entry boots were sometimes noted for the lack of support for the forward foot and general softness in the leg cuff. Lange no longer produces a mid-entry design, and examples from other companies are also becoming rare.

    By the late 1980s, Rossignol was in the process of building out their own line of products similar to Garcia's earlier attempts. This led to their purchase of Dynastar and other ski brands. In 1989 they purchased Lange from Boix-Vives, ending Lange ski production. Lange was partnered with Dynastar skis and (after 1994) Look bindings, a pairing that remains to this day. In 2001, Lange continued to be the brand of racing, equipping five times as many many medal-winning skiers in the World Cup as any other brand.

    Quiksilver[edit]

    In March 2005, after years of cycling profits that followed the United States dollar exchange rate, and facing retirement at age 78, Boix-Vives decided to sell his stake in Rossignol. His share was purchased for $55 million by the Australian/United States sporting wear company, Quiksilver, part of a larger $213 million deal. Boix-Vives took over operations of Rossignol's golf division.

    Quiksilver consolidated all of their North American operations in Park City, Utah. Unfortunately for Quiksilver, this was occurring in a period of poor snow, and profits plummeted. In 2007 several board members, including Boix-Vives, quit the company. With no experienced managers left, and losses on the order of $50 million in the skiing divisions, Quiksilver soon put the company up for sale.

    In August 2008, Quiksilver announced that it would be selling the Rossignol group to Chartreuse & Mont Blanc, a wholly owned shell company formed by Macquarie Group of Australia.[30]

    In July 2013, Macquairie sold the Rossignol Group, along with its subsidiaries Lange and Dynastar, to a partnership of Altor Equity Partners (a Swedish investment group) and the Boix-Vives family.[31]

    References[edit]

    Notes
    1. ^Most sources suggest that the Lange-flo interacted chemically with the vinyl and broke it down.
    2. ^Lund suggests that the recall resulted in close to 90% of all the Lange-flo boots being returned for work, but other sources place it at 10%.
    Citations
    1. ^Morten Lund, "A Short History of Alpine Skiing: Frem Telemark to Today", Skiing Heritage Journal, Winter 1996, pp. 6-7
    2. ^John Dodge, "The Cheater", Sports Illustrated, 18 December 1961
    3. ^Paul Stewart, "A Revolutionary New Ski Boot Has A Streamlined Shell Of Rigid Fiber Glass", Sports Illustrated, 15 November 1965
    4. ^Nancy Greene, "Questions and Answers", Nancy Greene official website
    5. ^"History of the Lange Girls"Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, Skiingmag
    6. ^Tom Winter, "Lange boots revolutionary in more ways than one", Vail Daily, 30 December 2004
    7. ^Northwest Skier, 27 November 1970, p. 11
    8. ^Northwest Skier, 16 October 1970, p. 11
    9. ^Seth Masia, "The Rise and Fall of the Knee-High Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, pp. 17-18
    10. ^Andrea Chang, "Quiksilver to sell Rossignol ski unit", Los Angeles Times, 28 August 2008
    11. ^ Anne-Sylvaine Chassany, "Altor to buy French ski maker Rossignol" "Financial Times", July 15, 2013
    Bibliography
    • Morten Lund and Seth Masia, "The Boot That Bob Built", Ski, 1986 Buyer’s Guide, pp. 193–195
    • Morten Lund, "The Empire That Exploded: Bob Lange and the Plastic Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, September 2001, pp. 13–23
    • John Fry, "The Story of Modern Skiing", UPNE, 2006, pp. 81–86
    • Seth Masia, "Hansons Still At It, Darcy Holds Forth", Skiing Heritage Journal, March 2003, p. 42
    • Seth Masia, "100 Years of Rossignol", Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2007, pp. 31–37
    • Seth Masia, "The Selling of Skiing", Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2005, pp. 36–40
    Further reading
    • Lange's own corporate history pages contain numerous errors that other sources agree are wrong. A considerable portion of the Lange archives were lost when the United States headquarters moved from Colorado to Vermont.
    • Seth Masia, "Fifty Years of Lange", Skiing History Magazine, March-April 2015, pp. 28-30
    • Jean-Francois Lanvers, "Lange: The History of an All-American Brand"

    External links[edit]

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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    LANGE Freestyle Figure Skate- Sr

    Style/Model #: LANGEFRSTYSR

    $39.99$99.99

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    This is a nice recreational skate with quick easy closure. Perfect for the local rink or out on the pond during those cool winters.
    Lange Freestyle Figure Skate- Sr
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    LANGE Freestyle Figure Skate- Sr
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    Lange (ski boots)

    Lange is a major producer of ski boots used in alpine (downhill) skiing. They introduced the world's first plastic ski boots in 1962, and a greatly improved model aimed at the racing market in 1965. After several World Cup and Olympics scalextric continental sports cars argos in 1967 and 1968 made them a must-have on the circuit, Lange has remained a force in the racing market ever since. Their boots have equipped five times as many World Cup medal winners as any other brand into the 2000s. The front-entry design introduced by Lange is used by almost every modern ski boot to this day. Lange remains a major brand worldwide.

    Bob Lange had been experimenting with plastic reinforced ski boots as early as 1958, but it took some time before the basic design was made usable. The first examples from 1962, built by Lange employee Dave Luensmann, used ABS shells and laces for closure, but were not very successful. A follow-up design released in volume in the winter of 1965/66 used a new thermoplastic shell, hinged cuff, and latching buckles, and became the first commercially successful replacement for leather boots. By 1970 they were almost universal on the racing circuit, and selling hundreds of thousands of examples as the world's leading ski boot brand. Lange entered the hockey market during the 1970s. Lange skates were an outgrowth of their plastic ski boots. Phil Esposito endorsed and used Lange skates. They went out of favor due to their weight non-traditional looks but had the advantages that they were comfortable to wear and offered more protection than traditional skates.

    A major technical misstep in 1970 led to financial difficulties and the eventual sale of the company to Garcia in 1973. Under the new ownership, the company continued development of the classic front-opening ski boot design. Over a series of models, the cuff began extending up the calf of the leg to greatly improve directional control and reduce lower-leg injuries. Garcia ran into financial difficulties of their own, and their suite of ski products was purchased by the owner of Rossignol in 1978. Under their direction, Lange released the famous bright-orange XL-R and Z designs of the 1980s, versions of which remained the racer's choice well into the 1990s. Modern Lange boots have changed little in design since these models.

    History[edit]

    Downhill develops[edit]

    Alpine skiing developed as a specialization from what was generally a cross-country sport. The downhill portions were shallow, short and had to be skied up, so the majority of the day would be spent in the cross-country striding motion.[1]

    As techniques diverged, especially with the widespread introduction of ski lifts, the market for customized downhill equipment rose. A major advance came with the introduction of the Kandahar binding in the 1930s, lange hockey skates for sale, which allowed the boot to be locked down to the ski during the downhill portions. This provided more control over "edging", rolling the ski onto its side to generate turning forces. The introduction of the Head Standard ski during the winter of 1950–1951 furthered this evolution by allowing the skis to hold an edge against the snow with much more force, dramatically improving turning performance. They were such a great improvement, the Standard was known as "The Cheater" because it allowed any skier to turn with ease.[2]

    Like the skis and bindings, ski boots had also evolved from earlier cross-country styles. By the 1950s these were essentially unchanged from the 1800s, consisting of a thick sole with a thinner upper shell of leather, similar to a normal winter boot. A flexible sole allowed the boot to bend forward at the toe to allow the cross-country striding motion. The upper cuff provided little sideways support, as this had not been a serious concern for cross-country. Ideally, for downhill skiing the boot would be rigid side-to-side to transmit rotational forces to the ski, allowing the skier to edge the ski directly. Moreover, in the downhill role there was no need for forward flex of the sole, which was clamped down anyway.

    Downhill before Lange[edit]

    This need led to downhill boots that retained the same basic shoe-like style of earlier designs, but were built much stiffer to allow for greater control. These had the serious drawback of being extremely uncomfortable. This was especially true during the breaking-in period, which might last weeks, lange hockey skates for sale. One solution had the skier lace up the boots and stand in hot water in a bathtub for an hour to soak, then walk around to allow the leather to move to fit the skier's foot. This had the disadvantage of greatly softening the boot, allowing it to wear out much more quickly.

    Even if this precise gtr golf clubs water fitting step wasn't used, strong skiers would wear out their boots in months as the leather softened, and mere weeks if they raced them. This left only a short period of time between the painful break-in period and the time when the boots were too soft to provide good control over the skis.Jean-Claude Killy took to having Michel Arpin ski in his boots while they broke in, giving them to Killy to lange hockey skates for sale for the few weeks before they wore out. Another solution to improve lateral control was the "long thong", a leather strap wrapped around the boot and lower leg, which came at the cost of eliminating any sort of quick release.

    Lange's first attempts[edit]

    Robert B. ("Bob") Lange flew Lockheed P-38 Lightning airplanes for the United States Army Air Forces before leaving to earn a degree at Harvard University, where he studied economics and engineering, lange hockey skates for sale. It was during this time that he took up skiing, and like many other beginner skiers of the era, lange hockey skates for sale, found himself dismayed by the relative antiquity of the designs. (Contrast with the Head Standard ski).

    Lange had another problem to solve; his size 9-1/2 triple-E wide feet demanded custom boots, which he ordered from Peter Limmer. These were not stiff enough for his liking, so Lange attempted to fix this by cutting strips of fiberglass left over from covering his boat, and gluing them to his boots using polyester resin. This 1948 attempt is the earliest recorded attempt at a plastic-reinforced boot.

    After graduating in 1949 he joined his family insurance business in Dubuque, Iowa, but did this only for a short time. Lange opened Hawkeye Plastics Corporation in the basement of the old Brunswick Radio Company factory, which had gone bankrupt during the Great Depression. In 1955 he received his first contract, from the Eska Company also located in Dubuque, when General Motors asked Eska for 30,000 kiddie-cars in the form of the 1956 Corvette. Lange's company produced the plastic Corvette bodies for Eska. Over the next few years the company produced a variety of fiberglass products, including hula-hoops and the interiors for refrigerators.

    Throughout, Lange continued to experiment with improvements to ski boots, lange hockey skates for sale numerous pairs to cut them up and see if they could be re-enforced to make them stronger. Lange was not the only designer to attempt this, and several boots soaked in epoxy or other glues were available in the 1950s. None of these offered any great improvement, and lacing them up was even more difficult than before. Lange had built several models with epoxy or polyester by 1958, later claiming to have skied a successful all-plastic boot in 1957.

    Royalite[edit]

    Fiberglass simply didn't have the right combination of features for an all-plastic boot. As part of the Corvette contract, Lange's Hawkeye Plastics had sub-contracted the seats to another local plastics company, run by David Luensmann. Luensmann had made the seats for the cars by vacuum-molding Royalite, an ABS plastic from Uniroyal. When Lange's Hawkeye went out of business, enough of this material was left over to experiment with boot designs, and Lange asked Luensmann to try it.

    Luensmann used strips of the material in a heat press to melt them into a single shell. He handed the results to Lange the next year, in the summer of 1961. After trying them that winter, Lange asked Luensmann to join him in a new company dedicated to making plastic boots. For mass production, the two built a vacuum press to shape the cuffs from larger sections of Royalite. This produced an extremely stiff boot suitable only for the most powerful racers. Attempting to solve the problem, they struck on the solution of molding the boot in two separate parts and joining them through rivets on either side, at the level of the ankle. This allowed the boot to retain all the lateral stiffness of the original design, while lacrosse helmet decal sets the forward flex to be better controlled.

    The new design, in blue and white, was released in limited numbers in 1962. Several people tried them out and reported a number of minor design issues, especially the problems lacing them up which often required two people. Levered buckles were an obvious solution, first invented by Hans Martin and introduced to the market in 1955 on the Henke Speedfit. However, Henke held the patent on the concept and Lange was reluctant to pay for a license.

    By the winter of 1963 they had managed to fill only a small number of their orders and even smaller number were in use. These few boots suffered a number of mechanical failures that were traced to the poor performance of ABS plastic in low temperatures.

    Adiprene[edit]

    The Lange Swinger, part of the "2nd generation" lineup from around 1968. These early examples clearly trace their ancestry to the leather boots they replaced, lange hockey skates for sale, including a leather-like mottled surface treatment.

    In late 1962 DuPont provided a solution, a new pourable polyurethane plastic known as Adiprene. This material was much less affected by the cold, but had the distinct disadvantage that it could not be vacuum-molded, as it needed to be used in liquid form. Instead, it had to be heated and poured into a mold and then allowed to cool and set. This made it much more time consuming to use in production, but the advantages were too great to ignore. The company spent most of 1963 trying to solve the production problems, ignoring the growing list of orders for the older ABS models.

    In the end, no production of the new design was undertaken that year, leading to friction with his sales partners, lange hockey skates for sale. In 1965 Lange finally added Henke-like buckles to his boots when that company gave up the patent, lange hockey skates for sale. Not only did the buckle make it easy to close even the stiffest boots, the plastic spread the load across the entire cuff, applying even pressure to the foot. Leather designs tended to distort where the buckles attached, leading to tight spots on the foot and eventually damaging the leather.

    It was not until 1965 they had built a new molding machine known as "Mickey Mouse" that could inject the Adiprene to speed production. This system was only marginally functional, and only 600 pairs of boots were produced that year. It was not until early 1966 that full production was able to start and 1,000 pairs had been completed. By the end of the year the number stood at 6,000, doubling in 1967 to 12,000, and again in 1968 to 25,000.

    By this time, Rosemount Engineering had introduced their own all-synthetic boot. Unlike the Lange, the Rosemount design was made of rigid fiberglass and split open in two parts to put it on. Like Lange, they were only able to produce small numbers of boots, about 900 pair, for the 1965/66 season.[13] Many sources make the claim that Rosemount was first to introduce a plastic boot commercially, but it appears that both were available in limited numbers at the same time. In any event, Lange's earlier Royalite models clearly pre-date any of the Rosemount examples.

    Commercial success[edit]

    1968's Lady Lange Competite was the first women's-specific race boot, the companion to the Comp model. It differs from the Comp in that it uses a single large flap over the front of the boot, a design note that did not continue on future models.

    Production was not the only issue; the new design also needed a test market to popularize it. Lange approached the United States ski team hoping to have them test the new design. However, they were being performance sports nutrition pure whey by Heirling, and weren't interested.

    In January 1966, Lange called Dave Jacob, who was at that time coaching the Canadian ski team. Lange asked if Jacob would be willing to try the new boots with the Canadian team. Jacob agreed and several team members tried them out, but he noted that "they were really bad boots." Lange paid Jacob's way to Dubuque to help implement solutions for his concerns.

    In June 1966 five pairs of boots incorporating these changes were shipped to Mount Hood, where the Canadian team was training. Gerry Lange hockey skates for sale, Rod Hebron and Nancy Greene tried them on and approved, lange hockey skates for sale. Soon after, Greene won the Golden Rose Race on the new boots. Lange then flew to the 1966 World Championships in Portillo, Chile and handed out examples to anyone willing to test them. He carried around a tape recorder, asking for any suggestions on how to improve the design. When Hebron and Suzy Chaffee showed dramatic improvement during the races, the new boot became an object of serious curiosity. Curiosity changed to must-have when Greene started winning races in 1967 on the newly formed World Cup circuit, and eventually took the gold medal.[16]

    Five medals were won on Lange boots at the 1968 Winter Olympics, lange hockey skates for sale, making them the most-winning brand of the competition. At the Olympics, Lange signed a deal with Dynamic to produce their line of skis for the North American market. The company went public in 1969, and used the proceeds to purchase land in Broomfield, Colorado, building a 40,000 square foot (3,700 m2) boot factory, a 42,000 square foot (3,900 m2) ski factory, and a 20,000 square foot (1,900 m2) warehouse. The new factories dramatically improved production, and over the 1969 season alone the company shipped 100,000 pairs of boots.

    1969 was the breakthrough year for the company. Three models were on the market to serve different performance levels, the Standard for recreational skiing, the Pro for more demanding use, and the Comp for downhill racing. There was only one competitor, Rosemont, but their product was based on fiberglass and used a side-opening system that was clearly inferior to Lange's boots and could only compete on the low-end, in spite of a high-end price. By the end of the season, Lange was being sold at hundreds of stores across the country at prices no one else could demand.

    To reach new markets, plans for a new boot factory in Montebelluna, Italy started, along with another in Montreal to produce ice skates using similar concepts and materials. The Montreal plant was later expanded to sell ski boots to Europe as well, avoiding import tariffs on US products. On top of this, at the 1970 World Championships at Val Gardena, Billy Kidd won the gold medal in Combined on Lange boots, and Lange or Dynamic took medals in every event, men and women's.

    Lange-flo[edit]

    Alden Hanson of Dow Chemical contacted Lange in 1970 to tell them about a new material the company had invented. The new plastic retained a putty-like texture in any weather, and Hanson's son had used it to make boots with a layer of the material sandwiched between a normal leather lange hockey skates for sale and a hard fiberglass shell. The material was a natural fit with Lange's plastic boots, fitting between the liner and shell.

    When Lange staff tried it, they unanimously supported it. The timing proved difficult, however; 200,000 pairs of boots were planned for the 1970–1971 season, and if they were going to use the newly christened "Lange-flo" it would have to go into production before there was time for extensive testing. Lange decided to press ahead, putting it in all of their boots for the next model year.

    The boots were launched with a provocative advertising campaign of a woman wearing the new boots and a cat-suit with the same boot buckles holding it closed, in place of a zipper or buttons. The only wording simply stated "soft inside".[19] This was the first of a series of provocative ads now referred to simply as "the Lange girls".[20]

    Although the Lange-flo worked, the vinyl liner that held it proved to crack after hard use,[N 1] and let the Lange-flo squeeze into the boot. The solution was to place the Lange-flo in a separate plastic bag outside the liner, but as the liners were sown into the boot, this required a recall to re-fit them. About 20,000 of the 200,000 boots shipped that season returned to the factory.[N 2] In their attempt to deal with the problem in a timely fashion, new staff were added and theft became a problem. Bad record keeping and lost tags led to many boots being shipped to the wrong people. Many simply never received their boots back.

    At about the same time, Dynamic started protesting its agreement with Lange, while cash was needed to start the Canadian plant and introduce the new skate design. Emergency loans kept the company going through 1971, when they reported a $1.5 million loss, largely due to the warrantee work due to Lange-flo. The next year Hanson introduced their rear-entry design, the first real competitor. Lange shares continued to drop throughout.

    In 1973 a further round of funding failed, and Lange sold the company to Garcia Company, owners of the Mitchell Reel fishing tackle company and tennis brands that was building a stone ridge football portfolio. Lange signed on as a consultant to Garcia, but didn't like the results. He left the company shortly thereafter, in July 1974.

    Extending upward[edit]

    Early plastic boots, like their earlier leather cousins, rose just above the ankle and provided little support if the skier leaned forward or back. Around 1966 the French developed a new short-turn technique called avalement that stored energy by bending the tail of the ski and then using this to accelerate out of turns. This required the skier to lean back on the skis, and to support this style, skiers took to adding any number of ad-hoc solutions to add support at the back.

    During the 1970–1971 season, Jack Nagel introduced the "Jet-Stix", an aftermarket accessory designed to be used on plastic boots from Lange or Rosemont. The Jet-Stix consisted of a fiberglass extension shaped like a shoehorn that strapped on under the top buckle so it lay along the back of the calf. These allowed the skier to lean back and raise the front of the ski upward with ease.[23] Lange quickly followed with their own version, the Lange Spoiler.[24] Similar devices were common through 1970.

    In 1967 Nordica introduced a new injection-moulded "hybrid" design that wrapped a stiff shell around a conventional leather boot. The innerboot was removable for custom fit work, lange hockey skates for sale major advance over Lange's cemented-in liner. This saw little interest, but Nordica followed this in 1969 with their Astral design, a direct attack on Lange. Their introduction of the bright yellow Astral Slalom in 1972, better known as the "Banana Boot", incorporated a spoiler directly into the cuff and eliminated the need for a separate device. Soon Nordica were selling 400,000 pairs a year, lange hockey skates for sale, Lange's first serious competition in the market.

    For the 1971-1972 season, Lange introduced the "Comp II" boot, following on their earlier Comp series racing boots but incorporating the higher back similar to the Nordica design. The Comp II was soon joined by the Pro II, and then by midrange Banshee with four buckles of an improved design. Lange hockey skates for sale change set off an industry-wide evolution to ever-higher cuffs, culminating in the 1980s with cuffs that rise about half way to the knee. Some designs, the "knee highs", had secondary cuffs that rose to just below the knee.[26]

    Under Garcia, Lange continued to improve the boot design, while at the same time they introduced Lange branded skis based on Dynamic models, purchased the Burtski binding, and added a range of products like ski poles and goggles. Garcia became the first company to offer a complete range of ski gear as an integrated set. Throughout, Garcia's main product line remained its fishing gear, and during the mid-1970s a wave of Japanese competitors arrived and quickly pushed them out of the fishing market. The company went bankrupt in 1978, after owning Lange for only four years.

    Boix-Vives and Rossignol[edit]

    The XL-R cemented Lange's reputation as the racer's boot of choice. Modern boots are little changed from this example from the early 1980s.
    The Z-R followed the XL-R with a number of minor upgrades. The buckles lock closed, and are released by pulling on the small tabs. A control for the "cant" of the boot has been added, the small black square over the ankle. Minor changes like this followed all the way to current examples.

    When Garcia's bankruptcy put them on the market, Rossignol, the famous ski company, was looking to enter the tennis market. Rossignol purchased Garcia's existing tennis production lines and started selling off the other divisions; when Lange skis and Burt bindings failed to find a buyer they were closed down. The same fate awaited Lange boots, but Rossignol's CEO, lange hockey skates for sale, Laurent Boix-Vives, purchased the company personally through a Swiss holding company, lange hockey skates for sale, Ski Expansion.

    New warehouses were opened in Williston and Colchester, Vermont, where Rossignol and Dynastar skis were sent lange hockey skates for sale distribution into the North American market. For a time, Dynastar skis made in the Authier factory were sold under the Lange brand in the United States. During the late 1970s, the rising United States dollar exchange rate and historically-high interest rates made United States operations increasingly expensive. Many North American ski companies found themselves unable to compete with Europe, even as the ski industry lange hockey skates for sale being hit by low participation rates for the same economic reasons. In 1982 Boix-Vives closed the Garcia factories, including Lange in Colorado, moving all boot production to Lange's factory in Italy. Research and development for Lange remained in Colorado.

    In 1982 they introduced the famous bright-orange XL-R design. The XL-R had a number of improvements over earlier models. Among these was a new buckle design; previous designs generally use a metal loop attached on one side of the cuff and a buckle with a rack cut into the bottom attached to the other. For tighter settings the loop had to be inserted into a rack cut higher on the buckle, lowering lange hockey skates for sale mechanical advantage and making it much harder to close. The new design moved the rack to one cuff and put the metal loop on the buckle itself, lange hockey skates for sale. This offered steady mechanical advantage on any setting. The new four-buckle system is largely identical to any modern downhill ski boot.

    The XL-R was a runaway hit on the racing market and soon followed by the XL-S and XL-T versions for different performance levels. The XL series were also well known for the way they allowed water to leak into the boot where the lower cuffs folded over each other near the toe, and prompted many owners to cover the area with duct tape. The liners also tended to "pack down" fairly quickly, flattening out and no longer offering support. An improved version of the basic XL design was later introduced lange hockey skates for sale the Z-model, which included a new low-profile locking buckle design that would not accidentally open once locked, and a small plastic tab in front of the toe flaps to prevent snow forcing its way in.

    Meanwhile, the Italian factory at Montebelluna was experimenting with a new custom-fit liner, using a thermosetting plastic called Thermofit. Pressed by rapid changes in the market, notably Salomon's introduction of their hugely successful rear-entry boot line, the Thermofit system was developed as a way to remain on the leading edge. Betting the company on the new system, it failed in testing, leaving the company with no catchy designs. Among the failed attempts to address this problem were in-boot heaters, the CFX and SPE rear-entry designs largely identical to Salomon models, and a "mid-entry" boot with cable closure, the Mid.

    Of all of these, only the mid-entry design would be at all successful the market. This design combines a traditional lower boot with a split upper cuff like that of a rear-entry design. The lower portion buckled down to provide strong support, whereas conventional rear-entry boots were sometimes noted for the lack of support for the forward foot and general softness in the leg cuff. Lange no longer produces a mid-entry design, and examples from other companies are also becoming rare.

    By the late 1980s, Rossignol was in the process of building out their own line of products similar to Garcia's earlier attempts. This led to their purchase of Dynastar and other ski brands. In 1989 they purchased Lange from Boix-Vives, ending Lange ski production. Lange was partnered with Dynastar skis and (after 1994) Look bindings, a pairing that remains to this day. In 2001, Lange continued to be the brand of racing, equipping five times as many many medal-winning skiers in the World Cup as any other brand.

    Quiksilver[edit]

    In March 2005, after years of cycling profits that followed the United States dollar exchange rate, and facing retirement at age 78, lange hockey skates for sale, Boix-Vives decided to sell his stake in Rossignol. His share was purchased for $55 million by the Australian/United States sporting wear lange hockey skates for sale, Quiksilver, part of a larger $213 million deal. Boix-Vives took over operations of Rossignol's golf division.

    Quiksilver consolidated all of their North American operations in Park City, Utah. Unfortunately for Quiksilver, this was occurring in a period of poor snow, and profits plummeted. In 2007 several board members, including Boix-Vives, quit the company. With no experienced managers left, and losses on the order of $50 million in the skiing divisions, Quiksilver soon put the company up lange hockey skates for sale sale.

    In August 2008, Quiksilver announced that it would be selling the Rossignol group to Chartreuse & Mont Blanc, a wholly owned shell company formed by Macquarie Group of Australia.[30]

    In July 2013, Macquairie sold the Rossignol Group, along with its subsidiaries Lange and Dynastar, to a partnership of Altor Equity Partners (a Swedish investment group) and the Boix-Vives family.[31]

    References[edit]

    Notes
    1. ^Most sources suggest that the Lange-flo interacted chemically with the vinyl and broke it down.
    2. ^Lund suggests that the recall resulted in close to 90% of all the Lange-flo boots being returned for work, but other sources place it at 10%.
    Citations
    1. ^Morten Lund, "A Short History of Alpine Skiing: Frem Telemark to Today", Skiing Heritage Journal, Winter 1996, pp. 6-7
    2. ^John Dodge, "The Cheater", Sports Illustrated, 18 December 1961
    3. ^Paul Stewart, "A Revolutionary New Ski Boot Has A Streamlined Shell Of Rigid Fiber Glass", Sports Illustrated, 15 November 1965
    4. ^Nancy Greene, "Questions and Answers", Nancy Greene official website
    5. ^"History of the Lange Girls"Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, Skiingmag
    6. ^Tom Winter, "Lange boots revolutionary in more ways than one", Vail Daily, 30 December 2004
    7. ^Northwest Skier, 27 November 1970, p. 11
    8. ^Northwest Skier, 16 October 1970, p. 11
    9. ^Seth Masia, "The Rise and Fall of the Knee-High Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, pp. 17-18
    10. ^Andrea Chang, "Quiksilver to sell Rossignol ski unit", Los Angeles Times, 28 August 2008
    11. ^ Anne-Sylvaine Chassany, "Altor to buy French ski maker Rossignol" "Financial Times", July 15, 2013
    Bibliography
    • Morten Lund and Seth Masia, "The Boot That Bob Built", Ski, lange hockey skates for sale Buyer’s Guide, pp. 193–195
    • Morten Lund, lange hockey skates for sale, "The Empire That Exploded: Bob Lange and the Plastic Boot", Skiing Heritage Journal, September 2001, pp. 13–23
    • John Fry, "The Story of Modern Skiing", UPNE, 2006, pp. 81–86
    • Seth Masia, "Hansons Still At It, Darcy Holds Forth", Skiing Heritage Journal, March 2003, p. 42
    • Seth Masia, "100 Years of Rossignol", Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2007, pp. 31–37
    • Seth Masia, lange hockey skates for sale, "The Selling of Skiing", lange hockey skates for sale, Skiing Heritage Journal, December 2005, pp. 36–40
    Further reading
    • Lange's own corporate history pages contain numerous errors that other sources agree are wrong. A considerable portion of the Lange archives were lost when the United States headquarters moved from Colorado to Vermont.
    • Seth Masia, "Fifty Years of Lange", Skiing History Magazine, March-April 2015, pp. 28-30
    • Jean-Francois Lanvers, "Lange: The History of an All-American Brand"

    External links[edit]

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    lange hockey skates for sale lange hockey skates for sale $1.00 lange hockey skates for sale

    VIntage Skates, JELINEK, CCM, LANGE, BAUER

    ringwood ice skating rink lange hockey skates for sale Oakville / Halton Region 03/01/2022

    I have a number of pairs of vintage skates for sales. Some are Wall Hangers while other can still be worn for a skate. #1 - Ladies White skates SZ 10 - $25.00 #2 -TruLine Custom Sz 9 - $20.00 #3 - Regulation Samson Sz 12 - $20.00 #4 - Brand Unknown Sz 10 - $20.00.SOLD SOLD SOLD SOLD #5 - Jelinek Size 11 - $20.00 #6 - Lange size 81/2 - $20.00 (no liners) #7 - CCM Sz 10 - $20.00 #8 - Brand unknown, all leather $25.00 #9 - Bauer Blazer 66 Sz 10 - $15.00 #10 - Olympic Sz 9 - $20.00 #11 - Jelinek. .
    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    As we discussed in The History of Hockey Skates, Part I, the 1800s saw a boom in ice skating as a form of recreation, which drove advances in skate technology. The rise of ice hockey as a sport kick-started a period of innovation that tennis romano di lombardia with the very first skate designed specifically for hockey: the Starr Hockey Skate, which was introduced in 1866. Starr’s hockey skate featured a wider blade, which was rocker-shaped rather than straight, and rounded at the front and back. This allowed for the tighter turns and sudden stops and starts that are hallmarks of ice hockey. Around 1900, Starr introduced the first “tube skate,” in which the blade was held by a tubular carrier, which then attached to the boot, lange hockey skates for sale. The Starr Hockey Skate remained popular among hockey players well into the 1920s.

    Proliferation of Skate Makers

    The first two decades of the 20th century saw the launch of many more hockey skate manufacturers. In 1899, Toronto’s CCM—Canadian Cycle & Motor Company—began producing bicycles and automobiles. Looking for new businesses, they launched a line of ice skates in 1905. The CCM Automobile line of ice skates got its name because the blades were made from metal left over from the manufacturing of Russell motor cars.

    That same year, a Canadian shoemaker named George Tackaberry built a pair of ice skates for his neighbor, a hockey defenseman named Joe Hall, who had complained that he couldn’t find skates that could last a whole season. Applying his boot-making skills, Tackaberry used kangaroo leather to build a boot with a reinforced heel and toe, as well as a thicker tongue. He also lowered the top of the boot two inches to improve mobility. Once other players saw Hall’s new skates, Tackaberry was in demand, and he was soon selling skates as fast as he could make them.

    CCM dominated the ice hockey market until the late 1920s, when the Bauer family—owners of the Western Shoe Company in Kitchener, Ontario—began producing the first skates in which the blade was permanently attached to the boot. The company’s signature model, the Bauer Supreme, came on the market in 1933. It was immediately popular, and Bauer became the major competitor of CCM. In response, CMM purchased the Tackaberry brand in 1937 and introduced the legendary CCM Tacks line of hockey skates. Both lange hockey skates for sale Bauer Supreme and CCM Tacks are still made today, although in much-improved and updated versions.

    Eventually, skates from European makers such as the Swiss company Graf—which began lange hockey skates for sale hockey skates in 1937—became available in North America. These imports were among the reasons that Starr went out of business in 1938, unable to compete in a difficult market during tough economic times.

    Popularity Fuels Skate-Making Innovation

    Very little changed over the next few decades, with Bauer and CCM dominating the market, although other companies sprang up and disappeared. Hockey skates continued to be made with leather boots and tubular blades exclusively. The rise in popularity of hockey in the USA from the late 1960s through the 1970s—as the NHL went from the “original six” teams in 1967 to 21 teams in 1980—spurred an expansion of the market and a series of innovations in hockey skate technology.

    Molded-Plastic Skate Boots

    The 1970s saw the introduction of molded-plastic skate boots, based on ski boot designs. Lange first introduced these models, featuring a hinged plastic boot and a foam liner, and they were endorsed by NHL players, including Phil Esposito. The skates forced the wearer to lean forward slightly, which helped them maintain a good hockey stance. But the plastic boots were quite heavy, and some players didn’t like how they looked. The molded-plastic boot concept was taken up in the 1980s by companies such as Micron and Bauer, whose Turbo model was very popular.

    Tuuk Blade Holders

    Bauer’s revolutionary plastic Tuuk 2000 blade holders made history in 1976. They replaced the tubular blades in use since the turn of the century, making skates lighter and allowing easier changing of the blades. Within a few years, most other manufacturers had gone to plastic holders as well, although some players still preferred their tubes, lange hockey skates for sale. Bauer surged in popularity, while CCM struggled, eventually going bankrupt in 1983.

    Hockey Skate Brand Consolidation

    But this was not the end of the CCM brand, and the next two decades saw a consolidation of brands—as smaller companies changed hands and were absorbed by larger brands—and the brief entry of sports giants, lange hockey skates for sale, including Nike and Reebok, into the skate manufacturing landscape. Nike purchased Bauer in 1995, then sold it in 2005. Bauer’s parent company is now Peak Achievement Athletics, Inc. After its bankruptcy in the early 1980s, CCM went through a series of owners and parent companies before finally being bought by Reebok in 2004. The next year, Reebok was purchased by Adidas, who sold the CCM brand to a private equity firm in 2017. Today CCM and Bauer once again dominate the hockey skate market, as they did through much of the 20th century.

    In Part III, we will outline the remarkable achievements in boot and blade technology in the 21st century.

    Questions? Comments?

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    Canstar Sports Inc. History



    Address:

    5705 Ferrier Street
    Suite 200
    Ville Mont-Royal, Quebec H4P 1N3
    Canada


    Telephone:(514) 738-3011
    Fax:(514) 738-5178

    Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Nike, Inc.
    Incorporated:1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd.
    Employees: 1,830
    Sales: C$201.59 million (1993)
    SICs: 3949 Sporting and Athletic Goods, Not Elsewhere Classified

    Company History:

    Called the "Canadian king of hockey gear," Canstar Sports Inc. ranks as one of the world's leading ice skate manufacturers. According to an August 1994 Forbes article, the company's Bauer and Cooper brands are as widely recognized in Canada as Kleenex and Xerox are in the United States. Based in a suburb of Montreal, the company parlayed its strengths in hockey skates into a strong showing in the in-line skate market in the early 1990s. By that time, Canstar's stable of brands included Bauer, Micron, Lange, Mega, and Daoust ice skates; Flak and Cooper hockey equipment; and Bauer in-line skates. With U.S. sales of $36.4 million, lange hockey skates for sale, the Bauer brand ranked fourth among in-line skate brands in 1993. Canstar was acquired by master marketer Nike, Inc. in the latter company's largest purchase ever, a $395 million transaction.

    Foundation and Corporate Developmentin the Mid-20th Century

    The first pair of Bauer skates was hand-sewn in the early 1930s. By the mid-1950s, lange hockey skates for sale, the Bauer line was the world's top seller of hockey skates, but was just one division of shoe-making conglomerate Greb Industries Ltd., best known as the first international licensee of Hush Puppies shoes. Greb also produced Kodiak boots and Collins safety shoes. Family-owned until 1974, Greb was acquired that year by Warrington Products Ltd., which was in turn controlled by Cemp Investments Ltd. The transaction made Bauer a member of the Bronfman family holdings, whose Seagram's Co. was the world's biggest liquor company. ("Cemp" was an acronym for the Bronfman heirs: Charles, Edgar, lange hockey skates for sale, Minda, and Phyllis.) Warrington had been incorporated in 1969 as W.C.G. Sports Industries Ltd. and went public under the new name two lange hockey skates for sale later.

    After an early 1970s surge, Bauer and its parent companies suffered through a severe contraction in the later years of the decade. From 1971 to 1982, Warrington chalked up five annual losses and its stock plummeted from $8.75 at its initial public offering to less than $1 by 1983. Bauer laid off more than one-third of its workforce and closed plants in Maine and Quebec, lange hockey skates for sale. With the financial backing of Cemp, Warrington tried to diversify out of its free-fall, acquiring a match producer, a luggage company, an appliance maker, and a plastic pipe business.

    Sweeping Change Marks 1980s

    The 1980s ushered in an era of sweeping change at the company. Although not yet affiliated with the firm, Icaro Olivieri was in many respects the orchestrator of its transformation. Born in 1940, this native of northern Italy apprenticed in his father's tool shop during the 1950s. Olivieri's work with hinges and springs inspired his 1964 design of an improved ski boot fastener. His buckle was quickly adopted in place of traditional laces. Without the benefit of formal training, Olivieri then invented injection molding equipment custom-made for the production of plastic ski boots. Within just a few years, the inventor's company had captured a commanding lead in the market for boot molds and metal buckles.

    After touring Warrington's rather old-fashioned skate factory in 1975, Olivieri saw an opportunity to adapt his new technology to the hockey skate industry. The Italian founded a plant in Montreal and began churning out his Micron brand skates and Tyrol ski boots, the sleek, black plastic styling of which offered a significant challenge to Bauer's long-standing dominance of the market. Several years of intensifying competition culminated in the 1981 merger of the two competitors under the Canadian company's name with Olivieri as chairman. The union created Canada's largest sporting goods firm and signaled Warrington's strategic refocus on that sector.

    Given his own creative background, Olivieri sought to keep Canstar in the vanguard of design. Under his direction, the company consistently invested 2 percent to 3 percent of revenues in research and development. An intensive three-year study lange hockey skates for sale hockey skates and skating culminated in the 1987 launch of the Micron Mega, a skate whose quality won Canstar the devotion of 70 percent of National Hockey League (NHL) pros. Even if they were not wearing Bauer or Micron, 90 percent of NHL players used Canstar's Tuuk or ICM blades. Commenting to The New York Times, analyst William J. Chisholm noted that Canstar's "sophisticated engineering, technology and research" gave it a decided edge over its competitors.

    Warrington also augmented its line via an acquisition spree during this period. From 1981 to 1987, the company added Caper, Trappeur, Spalding, lange hockey skates for sale, and Kerma brand ski equipment; Santana, Harvard, and (under Canadian license) Pony brand footwear; Helmetec brand helmets; and Flak brand hockey equipment to its family of sporting goods.

    But this rapid diversification proved "a bust," in the words of Forbes magazine's Nina Monk. By 1987, Warrington wavered on the brink of disaster; it lost $34 million that year and was burdened with $90 million in debt. At the same time, intrafamilial differences among the Bronfmans precipitated the breakup of the Cemp investment group. That year, Warrington sold Greb Inc. and its line of fashion shoes, lange hockey skates for sale, keeping Bauer and the sporting goods. In 1988, Olivieri and investment group Dynamic Capital Corp, lange hockey skates for sale. stepped in to execute a leveraged buyout of the Bronfmans' 30 percent interest in Warrington. The chairman turned majority stakeholder renamed the firm Canstar Sports Inc. and brought in turnaround expert Gerald Wasserman.

    Wasserman gave Nina Monk of Forbes magazine a curt evaluation of the company he joined, saying that it "had great brands but not much else." He divested Canstar's shoe and ski businesses to concentrate on hockey equipment, and, by 1989, the company was earning $8.7 million (US $6 million) on sales of $98.26 million (US $71 million). According to a 1991 article in Financial Times of Canada, Canstar sold nearly 50 percent, or 1.2 million pairs, of the 2.5 million ice skates sold around the world.

    Growth Through Focused Diversificationin the 1990s

    It was the perfect time to focus on skates. Ice hockey enjoyed unprecedented popularity in the early 1990s. Faye Landes, an analyst with Smith Barney (New York), lange hockey skates for sale, told Business Journal-Portland, "Hockey is the hottest thing out there." Part of the resurgence was credited to the NHL, which achieved new heights of popularity under a more forward-looking team of leaders in the mid-1990s, lange hockey skates for sale. Canstar's continued dedication to ice hockey was exemplified by its 1990 acquisition of Cooper Canada Ltd.'s hockey division. The country's premiere producer of protective hockey gear, Cooper offered a 1,700-item selection of pads, gloves, and helmets. Canstar acquired the Daoust ice skate business from A. Lambert International Inc. for $30 million in 1992 and launched Canstar Apparel Inc., a manufacturer of hockey jerseys and socks, the following spring.

    Given its substantial position in Canada's hockey skate market, Canstar cautiously sought new avenues for growth in the early 1990s, taking special aim at the burgeoning in-line skate market. Although ice hockey skates remained Canstar's core, accounting for more than one-third of annual sales in the mid-1990s, in-line skates were touted as the key to the company's future.

    In-line skates are essentially a hockey-style boot with four roller skate-type wheels mounted in line from toe to heel. Although there's considerable debate over the origins of the in-line skate (some trace it to Yoshisada Horiuchi's 1969 development of a prototype, whereas others say it was first created in lange hockey skates for sale 1800s), there is a general consensus that Minnesota's Scott Olson launched the modern industry in the early 1980s with his "Rollerblade" brand skate. Initially intended for hockey players to practice and keep in shape during the warm summer months, in-line skating soon spread to the general public. The sport's widespread popularity was credited to its combination of recreation, fitness, and competitive values.

    From 1990 to 1994, the number of in-line skaters in North America increased from 2 million to nearly 20 million and wholesale revenues multiplied from $75 million in 1989 to $500 million in 1994, making in-line skating the fastestgrowing sport in the United States. By 1995, the number of in-line skaters surpassed the number of participants in football, baseball, and soccer. Industry observers predicted that climb to continue, albeit at a slower pace, through the late 1990s.

    Canstar got into the market in the late 1980s. In-line or off-ice skates grew from 2 percent of the firm's annual sales in 1990 to 18 percent by 1993. In 1992, the company became a founding sponsor of the 24-team professional Roller Hockey International League, as well as amateur leagues, in an effort to promote in-line skating, lange hockey skates for sale. A 1995 brief in the Chicago Sun Times noted that roller hockey was the fastest-growing segment of the in-line market. The company also hoped to piggyback in-line skate sales on the growing popularity of the NHL, focusing especially on nontraditional skating areas in the southern United States, especially Florida, Texas, and California, where new team franchises were granted in the early 1990s.

    In addition to its diversifications into related sporting goods, Canstar hoped that international expansion would provide a new avenue for growth. In 1993, the company acquired a controlling interest in Canstar Sverige AB and established an $8 million ice and in-line skate factory in Czechoslovakia. Canstar added British figure skate blade manufacturer Hatersley & Davidson to its roster of companies in 1994, thereby fulfilling two goals, diversification and geographic expansion, with one purchase. From 1990 to 1996, the geographic distribution of Canstar's revenues shifted from 70 percent domestic to about one-third indigenous.

    In 1992, both Wasserman and President and Chief Operating Officer Donald C. MacMartin abruptly resigned. In 1994, Olivieri tapped Pierre Boivin, former president and CEO of Weider Sporting Goods and noted Wasserman follower, to become Canstar's president. Despite the management upheaval, Canstar enjoyed rapidly rising sales and profits in the early 1990s. After declining from $105.9 million in 1988 to $98.26 million in 1989, sales more than doubled to $201.6 million in 1993. Profits increased from $3 million in 1988 to $15.33 million.

    Rumors that the company was being targeted for acquisition by footwear giant Nike began to fly in mid-1994, when the latter company signed on to sponsor the National Hockey League. After months of denial from both parties, that December Nike announced that the two companies had come to an agreement. Icaro Olivieri would sell his 46 percent stake in Canstar to the American shoemaker. The $395 million purchase price paid by Nike to acquire Canstar made it Nike's largest acquisition to lange hockey skates for sale.

    The union promised benefits for both companies. Canstar gave Nike an instant, well-respected and well-established position in the fast-growing ice hockey and in-line skating markets. Canstar became part of a widely praised marketing and distribution powerhouse, but Nike president Philip Knight vowed that the US $4 billion giant would not interfere with its $200 million subsidiary's autonomy. Pierre Boivin praised the merger in a 1995 interview with Greg Pesky of Sporting Goods Business, saying, "I have seldom seen such a perfect marriage between two companies."

    Boivin predicted that Canstar's sales would top $400 million and Bauer's share of the in-line market would increase from about 7 percent to 32 percent by the end of the 1990s. Having long enjoyed a dominant position in the hockey market, the company planned to focus its acquisition strategy on figure skating, apparel, and vertical integration. Boivin expected to target Eastern and Western Europe, South America, and Asia for geographic growth in the late 1990s.

    Principal Subsidiaries: Canstar Sports Group Inc.; Canstar Sports U.S.A., Inc.; Canstar Sports AG; Canstar Italia S.p.A.; Canstar Apparel Inc.; Canstar Sverige AB; Helmtec Industries Inc.; Helmtec U.S.A., lange hockey skates for sale, Inc.

    Further Reading:

    • "Bauer Named Sponsor of Pro In-Line League," Sporting Goods Business, July 1992, p. 24.
    • Best, Patricia, "A Dynasty Divided," Maclean's, May 18, 1987, p. 41.
    • Booth, Amy, "Snow Business Gives Company Something To Smile About," Financial Post Magazine, December 24, 1983, p. 36.
    • Dunn, Brian, "Canstar Rolling Its Way to Growth," SportStyle, June 14, 1993, p. 16.
    • Emerman, S. R., "Nike, Inc.--Company Report," Dean Witter Reynolds, INVESTEXT, July 7, lange hockey skates for sale, 1995.
    • Ingram, Matthew, "Canstar Takes a Shot at New Game," Financial Times of Canada, September 30, 1991, p. 6.
    • "In-line Skating Still on a Roll: No Longer Considered a Fad, Sport Will Get Boost from Nike," Chicago Sun Times, February 9, 1995, lange hockey skates for sale, p. 48.
    • King, Harriet, "Nike in Accord To Purchase Hockey Equipment Maker," The New York Times, December 15, lange hockey skates for sale, 1994, p. D4.
    • Kryhul, Angela, "Quebec Firm Gets Canada Hush Puppies License," Footwear News, December 25, 1989, p. 20.
    • Lefton, Terry, "Nike Seeks To Ice Dance with Bauer Skates," Brandweek, October 3, 1994, p. 1.
    • Low, lange hockey skates for sale, Kathleen, "Pony Canada Realigned in Multifaceted Deal," Footwear News, October 29, lange hockey skates for sale, 1984, p. 2.
    • Marks, Anita, "Swoosh on Ice," Business Journal-Portland, October 21, 1994, 2018 flawless baseball. 1.
    • ------ "Nike Shells Out $395 Million for Canadian King of Hockey Gear, Business Journal-Portland, December 16, 1994, p. 1.
    • McDougall, Bruce, "Driven by Design," Canadian Business, January 1991, pp. 48-53.
    • Mills, Joshua, "Enthusiasm for Hockey Looks Like Good News for Skate Makers," The New York Times, February m3u playlist sports, 1994, p. C4.
    • Munk, Nina, "Hockey in the Sun," Forbes, August 15, 1994, p. 95.
    • Pesky, Greg, "Starting Line-Up," Sporting Goods Business, September 1994, p. 31.
    • ------ "Pierre Boivin: President and CEO, Canstar Sports Inc.," Sporting Goods Business, January 1995, p. 46.
    • Robinson, Allan, "Warrington's Hush Puppies Have a Very Determined Daddy," Financial Post Lange hockey skates for sale July 15, 1978, p. 17.
    • Waters, Jennifer, "In-Line Skating Industry Is Still on a Big Roll," Minneapolis-St. Paul City Business, December 8, 1995, lange hockey skates for sale, p. 1.

    Source: International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 16. St. James Press, 1997.

    Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

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  • Источник: [https://torrent-igruha.org/3551-portal.html]

    2 comments

    1.  @Peter Carcione  Thank you for your reply. After watching your video, I downloaded the latest version and retried. Probably my very old version had a bug. This one now is working fine. I ripped already 5 DVD's and they are all perfect. Thanks again! :-)

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