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A buyers' guide featuring boots for fleet-footed wingers and game-winning kickers

Best Rugby Boots for Backs

Buying a pair of boots as a back can be a minefield. Not only do you have to select from a wide range of rugby boots, you also have a universe of football boots you can choose from.

If you are an outside back, you will be making minimal tackles and getting involved in just a few rucks. Because of that you can eschew the protection of the ‘traditional’ rugby boot and move towards some of the lightweight, low protection, slippers that are now on the market.

It isn’t just about getting the lightest boot, though. Some very light boots come at the expense of stiffness. That means that when you make your burst through the line, instead of powering away, you end up dissipating that power through a bendy boot.

Of course, the other thing that backs will usually care about is kicking. To get consistent contact, you need a good surface to make contact with. Most back-specific boots come with offset laces, or sometimes hidden laces, to keep that contact area undisturbed. That is perfect if you are lining up a kick at goal or looking to slip a grubber through for your winger to get on the end of.

If you play in the pack, read our guide to the best boots for forwards in

Best Rugby Boots for Backs

Gilbert Kaizen SG Boots

Gilbert Kaizen SG Boots

(Gilbert)

Designed for speed and agility, these are ideal for fleet-footed outside backs. A knitted upper, brought over from football boots, hugs the foot without adding more than the bare essentials in weight. Perfect for some dazzling footwork and a sprint into the open field.

The offset laces mean that, even when your only option is to kick, you can do it with confidence thanks to an unbroken kicking zone.

+ Very lightweight but still offering a solid and secure fit

+ A raised heel ensures you are always in the most powerful position when you need to surge by the last defender

&#; The knitted upper and lightweight construction means you can expect a few bruised toes, even if you avoid rucks as much as possible

Mizuno Neo 3 Made in Japan SG Boots

(Mizuno)

Let&#;s deal with the obvious first of all, yes these are almost £ That may sound excessive for a pair of boots but the Neo 3s are on a different level. The K-Leather upper provides extreme comfort and ball control for kickers. The fit achieves the rare combination of being sock like but without being sloppy or overly flexible.

The sole comes with a combination of studs and moulds which, aside from in extremely poor weather, should allow year round usage.

+ A very classy colour scheme to fit the premium boot.

+ Year round usage without any excess weight.

These will be much too expensive for many players.

Adidas Predator XP FG Boots

(Adidas)

As a kid the Predator was the boot you had to have if you were playing football. That boot has evolved to this. The Predator XP has a knit upper to provide breathability but that is combined with foot security so you can dart left and right and know that your foot will be held in place.

Asymmetrical laces increase the contact patch so you can be confident of a consistent outcome when kicking.

+ Extra padding around the ankle cuff will protect your ankle joint from any impact

+ Lightweight and comfortable but with a secure fit to allow for fast footwork

&#; The firm ground studs probably won’t offer enough traction in the midwinter so you will need a second pair for soft ground

Adidas casinoextra.frd 1 FG Boots

(Adidas)

Ideal for speedy backs who steer clear of the rough stuff or prioritise accurate kicking over the odd bruise. Exceptionally lightweight construction and sock like comfort will leave you feeling like you’re not wearing any shoes at all.

A carbon-fibre insert under the foot means that all power is sent straight through the turf to fire you forward rather than lost in a bendy sole. There is plenty of space on the toe and instep for consistent and accurate kicking, whether at goal or sliding through a grubber.

+ Exceptionally lightweight but more than comfortable enough to wear for hours on end

+ Ideal for kickers who want a clear contact patch between boot and ball

&#; Right at the top end of the budget for most and, unless you live somewhere warm and dry, unusable in the winter months

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Puma Future Netfit FG/AG Boots

Best Rugby Boots for Backs

(Puma)

The Future is aptly named, this is what rugby boots will become. Part sock and part boot, the Future is super lightweight but with a lacing system which keeps the foot firmly locked down.

That means despite the flimsy looking exterior they will allow you to dance around with as much confidence as any ‘normal’ looking boot. Unsurprisingly, for a football boot, the contact area is ideal for kickers.

+ Perfect for powering through the line or dancing past a defender, thanks to excellent foot security

+ Great on hard surfaces and synthetic ground, this offer usage in all but the worst conditions

&#; The colour scheme might be a bit out there for some, although the Battenburg styling will appeal to those who like to stand out

Canterbury Speed SG Boots

Best Rugby Boots for Backs

(Canterbury)

The eye-catching Speed packs a lot into a reasonably priced boot. These are built with speed in mind so the construction is lightweight without compromising on power transfer or long term wear. The combination mould/stud sole will provide adequate traction year round without weighing you down.

Ideal for kickers thanks to the asymmetric laces which keep the contact zone clear.

+ A reasonably priced boot which can do it all

+ A clean but not boring look thanks to the black and yellow contrast

&#; As the name suggests, these don’t come with much in the way of protection

Under Armour Clutchfit Force FG Boots

Best Rugby Boots for Backs

(Under Armour)

These boots from Under Armour are the perfect match for any fleet-footed back. The padded insole and ankle cuff provide great comfort without compromising on performance.

The colour might not be for everyone but we all know that red is the fastest colour! Combine that with a hard-wearing outer and these are boots you will be able to enjoy season after season.

+ The red colour scheme is breathtaking and will stand out on any pitch

+ Extremely comfortable for all day wear

&#; With only plastic moulded studs these may not offer enough grip in deep winter

Adidas Predator Malice Control SG Boots

(Adidas)

The Malice Control boots from Adidas will split opinion. The hedgehog-like dimples provide control and accuracy for kickers while the asymmetric lacing provides more space to strike the ball. Foam Sensepods in the heel shrink and expand to fill space to ensure the optimum fit without rubbing.

The upper is crafted from 50% recycled materials and is lightweight but with some protection from rogue boots. The sole provides excellent traction on wet grass without adding weight.

+ Exceptionally lightweight but more than comfortable enough to wear for hours on end.

+ Ideal for kickers who want a clear contact patch between boot and ball.

Right at the top end of the budget for most.

That completes our round-up of the best rugby boots for backs in

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Adidas

German multinational corporation

This article is about the company. For other uses, see Adidas (disambiguation).

Adidas casinoextra.fr
Herzogenaurach - Adidas - jpg

Adidas factory in Herzogenaurach,
July

FormerlyDassler Brothers Shoe Factory (Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik) (–)
TypeAktiengesellschaft

Traded as

FWB:&#;ADS
OTC Pink: ADDYY
DAX Component
IndustryTextile, footwear
FoundedJuly&#;; 97&#;years ago&#;() (as Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik)
18&#;August ; 72 years ago&#;() (as Adidas)[1]
FounderAdolf Dassler
Headquarters

Herzogenaurach

,

Germany

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

ProductsApparel, footwear, sportswear, sports equipment, toiletries
RevenueIncrease€&#;billion ()[3]

Operating income

Increase €&#;billion ()[3]

Net income

Increase €&#;billion ()[3]
Total assetsIncrease €&#;billion ()[3]
Total equityIncrease €&#;billion ()[3]

Number of employees

57, ()[3]
Subsidiaries
Websitecasinoextra.fr
casinoextra.fr

Adidas AG (German: [ˈʔadiˌdas]; stylized as adidas since [4]) is a German multinational corporation, founded and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Germany, that designs and manufactures shoes, clothing and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, and the second largest in the world, after Nike.[5][6] It is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, % of the German football club Bayern München,[7] and Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company. Adidas' revenue for was listed at € billion.[3]

The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house; he was joined by his elder brother Rudolf in under the name Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik ("Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory"). Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes (spikes) for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U.S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the Summer Olympics. In , following a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, and Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.[1]

The three stripes are Adidas' identity mark, having been used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports for the equivalent of €1, and two bottles of whiskey,[8][9] became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company".[8][10]

History

Early days

(left): Adolf Dassler, founder of Adidas, c. ; (right): the 'Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory' near Herzogenaurach train station in

The company was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In July , his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became "Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory" (Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik).[11] The electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment.[12]

Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes (spikes) for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber.[13] In , Dassler persuaded U.S. sprinterJesse Owens to use his hand made spikes at the Summer Olympics. Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were selling , pairs of shoes every year before World War II.[14]

Both Dassler brothers joined the NSDAP in May and became also members of the National Socialist Motor Corps.[15] Furthermore, Adolf took the rank of Sportwart in the Hitler Youth from until the end of the war.[16] During the war, the company was running the last sport shoe factory in the country and predominantly supplied the Wehrmacht with shoes. In the shoe production was forced to cease operations and the company's facilities and workforce was used to manufacture anti-tank weapons. From to at least nine forced labourers were working at both sites of the company.[17]

The Dassler factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in by US forces, but was spared when Adolf Dassler's wife convinced the American soldiers that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes.[18]

Split and rivalry with Puma

The brothers split up in after relations between them had broken down,[19] with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler, later rebranded Puma, and Adolf forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August An urban myth has promulgated the backronymAll Day I Dream About Sports.[1]

Puma SE and Adidas entered into a fierce and bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks" — people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore.[20] Even the town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear.[12] When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to go to the basement and pick out a pair of free Pumas.[12] The two brothers never reconciled and although they are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible.[21]

In , the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years later, at the Summer Olympics, metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland.[citation needed]

At the Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment, but Adidas rejected this request. The German won gold in Pumas, but then laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both, but Adi was so enraged he banned the Olympic champion.[14]

Corporate image

See also: Three stripes

(left): The original trefoil Adidas logo until It is now used on the Adidas Originals heritage line. (right): The current logo. It was designed in for the Equipment line, then adopted as the corporate logo.

In , following the Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of €[9][22]

The Trefoil logo was designed in and launched in ,[23] just in time for the Summer Olympics held in Munich.[24] This logo lasted until , when the company introduced the "three bars" logo (that had been designed by then Creative Director Peter Moore), initially used on the Equipment range of products.[23]

Tapie affair

Bernard Tapie, a former French businessman who once owned Adidas but has since relinquished his control over the company due to debt

After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in , the company was bought in by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣ billion (now €&#;million), which Tapie borrowed.[25] Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune.

Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia. He also hired Madonna for promotion.[26][citation needed] He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants (Amelia Randall Dassler and Bella Beck Dassler) and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there.

In , unable to pay the loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas,[27] and the bank subsequently converted the outstanding debt owed into equity of the enterprise, which was unusual as per the prevalent French banking practice. The state-owned bank had tried to get Tapie out of dire financial straits as a personal favour to Tapie, it is reported, because Tapie was Minister of Urban Affairs (ministre de la Ville) in the French government at the time.

Robert Louis-Dreyfus, a friend of Bernard Tapie, became the new CEO of the company in He was also the president of Olympique de Marseille, a team Tapie had owned until [28] Tapie filed for personal bankruptcy in [27] He was the object of several lawsuits, notably related to match fixing at the football club. During , he served 6 months of an month prison sentence in La Santé prison in Paris. In February , Crédit Lyonnais sold Adidas to Louis-Dreyfus for a much higher amount of money than Tapie owed, &#;billion (€&#;million) francs rather than &#;billion (€&#;million). They also purposely bankrupted Tapie's company that owned Adidas, because only the company had the right to sue them.

Post-Tapie era

In , combined with FIFA Youth Group, SOS Children's Villages became the main beneficiary.

In , Adidas AG acquired the Salomon Group who specialized in ski wear, and its official corporate name was changed to Adidas-Salomon AG. With this acquisition Adidas also acquired the Taylormade Golf company and Maxfli, which allowed them to compete with Nike Golf.

In , Adidas sued the NCAA over their rules limiting the size and number of commercial logos on team uniforms and team clothing. Adidas withdrew the suit, and the two groups established guidelines as to what three-stripe designs would be considered uses of the Adidas trademark.

As CEO of Adidas, Louis-Dreyfus quadrupled revenue to € billion ($ billion) from through [29] In , he announced he would resign the following year, due to illness.

In , Adidas filed a lawsuit in a British court challenging Fitness World Trading's use of a two-stripe motif similar to Adidas' three stripes. The court ruled that despite the simplicity of the mark, Fitness World 's use was infringing because the public could establish a link between that use and Adidas' mark.[30]

In September , top English fashion designer Stella McCartney launched a joint-venture line with Adidas, establishing a long-term partnership with the corporation. This line is a sports performance collection for women called "Adidas by Stella McCartney",[31] and it has been critically acclaimed.[32]

Also, on 3 May , Adidas told the public that they sold their partner company Salomon Group for €m to Amer Sports of Finland. In August , Adidas declared its intention to buy Reebok for $&#;billion (US$). This takeover was completed with partnership in January [1] and meant that the company had business sales closer to those of Nike in North America. The acquisition of Reebok also allowed Adidas to compete with Nike worldwide as the number two athletic shoemaker in the world.[33]

Adidas has global corporate headquarters in Germany, and many other business locations around the world such as Portland OR, Hong Kong, Toronto, Taiwan, England, Japan, Australia, and Spain.

Adidas has long been a popular manufacturer of astro turf football shoes – shown here a recent pair that has been a popular choice

In , Adidas introduced the Adidas 1, the first ever production shoe to use a microprocessor. Dubbed by the company "The World's First Intelligent Shoe", it features a microprocessor capable of performing 5 million calculations per second that automatically adjusts the shoe's level of cushioning to suit its environment. The shoe requires a small, user-replaceable battery that lasts for approximately hours of running. On 25 November , Adidas released a new version of the Adidas 1 with an increased range of cushioning, allowing the shoe to become softer or firmer, and a new motor with percent more torque.[34]

On 11 April , Adidas announced an year deal to become the official NBA clothing provider. The company has been making NBA, NBDL, and WNBA jerseys and products as well as team-coloured versions of the "Superstar" basketball shoe. This deal (worth over $&#;million) took over the previous Reebok deal that had been put in place in for 10 years.

In November , Adidas announced that it would acquire outdoor action sport performance brand Five Ten through a share purchase agreement. The total purchase price was US$25 million in cash at closing.[35]

By the end of , Adidas was reporting their highest revenues ever and Chief Executive Herbert Hainer expressed optimism for the year ahead.[36]

In January , Adidas launched the footwear industry's first reservation mobile app. The Adidas Confirmed app allows consumers to get access to and reserve the brand's limited edition sneakers by using geo targeting technology.[37]

On 24 March , Adidas and McDonald's unveiled the McDonald's All-American uniforms. For the third year in a row, players will be wearing short-sleeved jerseys, made with the same lightweight and breathable material as the ones used in the NBA.[38]

In August , Adidas acquired fitness technology firm Runtastic for approximately $ million.[39]

In May Adidas sold TaylorMade golf company (including Ashworth) to KPS Capital Partners for $ million.[40]

Products

Apparel

Adidas sells a range of clothing items, varying from men's and women's t-shirts, jackets, hoodies, pants and leggings.[41]

The first Adidas item of apparel was the Franz Beckenbauer tracksuit created in [1] Adidas AG is the largest manufacturer of sports bras in Europe, and the second largest manufacturer in the world.[42]

Sportswear

One of the main focuses of Adidas has always been football kits, and the associated equipment. Adidas remains a major company in the global supply of team kits for international association football teams and clubs.

Adidas makes referee kits that are used in international competition and by many countries and leagues in the world. The company has been an innovator in the area of footwear for the sport, with notable examples including the release of the Copa Mundial moulded boot used for matches on firm dry pitches. It holds the accolade of the best selling boot of all time. The soft-ground equivalent was named World Cup and it too remains on the market.

Since , FIFA, the world governing body of football, has commissioned specially designedfootballs for use in its own World Cup tournaments. The Adidas Telstar was the first ball commissioned for the World Cup in The balls supplied for the World Cup, the "Teamgeist", were particularly noteworthy for their ability to travel further than previous types when struck, leading to longer range goals. Goalkeepers were generally believed to be less comfortable with the design of the ball, claiming it was prone to move significantly and unpredictably in flight.[43]

Adidas introduced the Jabulani for the World Cup. The ball was designed and developed by Loughborough University in conjunction with Bayern Munich. The Adidas Brazuca for the World Cup was the first World Cup ball named by the fans.[44]

Adidas is one of the official sponsors of the UEFA Champions League, and the Adidas Finale is the competition's official match ball.[45] Along with the aforementioned Adidas Predator boot, Adidas manufactures the adiPure range of football boots. Adidas named an official match ball of the UEFA Euro tournament the Adidas Beau Jeu which translates to "The Beautiful Game" in English.[46] Adidas provides clothing and equipment for all teams in Major League Soccer.

Baseball

Adidas has also provided baseball equipment and sponsors numerous players of Major League Baseball and Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan.

Adidas Baseball hardgoods are licensed to Dick's Sporting Goods.[47]

From to , Adidas sponsored New York Yankees.[48]

Basketball

Adidas' Superstar and Pro Model shoes, affectionately known as "shelltoes" for their stylized hard rubber toe box, were fueled by, among others, coaches such as UCLA's John Wooden.[49] Adidas drew about even with Converse in basketball by the mid s before both started to fall behind then-upstart Nike in the early s.[50] Subsequently, Adidas Superstar became very popular in the s hip hop streetwear scene alongside Adidas' stripe-sided polyester suits.[citation needed]

From to , Adidas was the uniform supplier of all the 30 teams in the National Basketball Association, replacing the Reebok brand after Adidas' acquisition of Reebok. Adidas was replaced by Nike as the official uniform supplier of the league after the –17 season.[51]

Cricket

Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar, batting with his personalized Adidas cricket bat

Adidas began manufacturing cricket footwear in the mid s, with their initial target market being Australia. Their shoes were a radical departure from traditional leather cricket boots which had remained basically unchanged for decades, being lighter and more flexible but also offering less toe protection, so that it became not uncommon to see batsmen who had been struck by the ball on the foot hopping around in pain. Having continued to manufacture cricket footwear for many years, in the company finally entered the field of bat manufacture in and currently their bat range includes the Pellara, Incurza, Libro and M-Blaster models.

In the s, Adidas signed the superstar Indian batsman Sachin Tendulkar and made shoes for him.[52] From until his retirement, Adidas had sponsored the cricket bat used by Tendulkar. It created a new bat, 'Adidas MasterBlaster Elite', personalized for him.

In , Adidas made a concerted move into English cricket market by sponsoring English batting star Kevin Pietersen after the cancellation of his lifetime deal with Woodworm, when they ran into financial difficulties.[53] The following year they signed up fellow England player Ian Bell, Pakistan opening batsman Salman Butt and Indian Player Ravindra Jadeja.

In the Indian Premier League (IPL), Adidas sponsored the team Mumbai Indians from to and Delhi Daredevils from to [54] They were the official sponsors of Pune Warriors India in and , however the team was banned from IPL due to payment issues. In Season, Adidas sponsored Royal Challengers Bangalore.

Golf

Adidas Golf manufactures golf clothing, footwear, and accessories. Men's and women's equipment includes footwear, shirts, shorts, pants, outerwear (wind suits), base layer and eyewear.[55]

Gymnastics

From to , Adidas has provided men's and women's gymnastics wear for Team USA, through USA Gymnastics. USA Gymnastics and Adidas sponsorship concluded at the end of In , Adidas gymnastics leotards for women and Adidas men's competition shirts, gymnastics pants and gymnastics shorts have been available in the United States, with seasonal leotards offered for Spring, Summer, Fall and Holidays. Adidas previous collaborated with GK Elite, since Spring , Adidas gymnastics products have been available worldwide through Elegant Sports. USA Olympic team members McKayla Maroney, Jordyn Wieber, Jake Dalton and Danell Leyva are all sponsored by Adidas gymnastics.

Ice hockey

Adidas has been providing uniforms for the National Hockey League since the season, replacing Reebok.[56]

Lacrosse

In , Adidas announced its entering to the lacrosse equipment, also sponsoring the Adidas National Lacrosse Classic in July for the top high school underclassmen players in the United States.[57] The company made their self into their own brand such as "Adidas Lacrosse", getting several scholarships, Bucknell (men and women), Bryant (men), Delaware (men and women), New Jersey Institute of Technology (men), and D3 powerhouse Lynchburg (men and women in fall of with soft good only)". Materials that adidas provided were jerseys, shorts, shoes, shafts, heads, gloves, and protective pieces.[58]

Products manufactured for the sport are sticks, gloves, protective gear and boots.[59]

Running

Adidas currently manufactures several running and lifestyle shoes, including the Energy-boost, and the spring-blade trainers.[needs update] The brand has built a strong runners' network within big European capitals, such as Paris' "Boost Energy League". In the 3rd season launched. In Paris, the Boost Energy League gathers 11 teams representing different districts of Paris.[60]

Adidas launched two new color ways of the NMD R1 and one new color way of the NMD XR1 in September [61] adidas EQT is a style of sneakers from adidas. It originated in the early 90s and relaunched in The latest adidas EQT line released in a "Turo Red" Pack on 26 January , and included models such as the adidas EQT Support 93/17, EQT Support ADV, and EQT Support Ultra. casinoextra.fr is one of the few online retailers.

Adidas running shoe demo in Boston

In November , Adidas teased a sneaker made from ocean plastic. The shoe is created from a fabric called "Biosteel". The shoe is called the "Adidas Futurecraft Biofabric." The material used is 15% lighter than conventional silk fibers, and is % biodegradable. The shoe only begin to dissolve when it is put in contact with a high concentration of the digestion enzyme proteinase, which occurs naturally. Once this happens, the shoes can decompose within 36 hours. The shoe was never released.[62]

Skateboarding

Adidas Skateboarding produces shoes made specifically for skateboarding, including the redesign of previous models for skateboarding. The brand also releases signature models designed by team riders.[63]

Tennis

Adidas has been involved with tennis equipment since the mid s and has historically sponsored many top tennis players, beginning with two of the most dominant male tennis players at the start of the professional era in the late s, Stan Smith and Ilie Nastase. During the s and s, not only were they exclusive apparel and footwear sponsors of world number one men's tennis players Ivan Lendl and Stefan Edberg and ladies' world number one Steffi Graf but each player had their own, exclusive graphic styles designed for their use during play, which were in turn marketed to the general public. Ivan Lendl even spent the vast majority of his dominant career playing with several different models of Adidas tennis racquets, primarily using the legendary Adidas GTX-Pro and then later the Adidas GTX Pro-T. The company recently introduced a new line of tennis racquets. While the Feather is made for the "regular player", and the Response for the "club player", Adidas targets the "tournament player" with the oz Barricade tour model.[64]

Kabaddi

Adidas entered Kabaddi which is still a non-Olympic sport but highly popular in the Indian subcontinent and Asian countries. In , with the launch of Pro Kabaddi League a city based franchise league in India, kabaddi took the region with storm. In , they tied up with Mumbai-based franchise U Mumba.[65]

"The association of kabaddi with adidas is a clear exemplification of the growth of the sport over the last two years," shared U Sports CEO, Supratik Sen.

Accessories

Adidas "Fresh Impact" - Limited Edition bottle

Adidas also designs and makes slide-style sandals, mobile accessories,[66] watches, eyewear, bags, baseball caps, and socks. As well, Adidas has a branded range of male and female deodorants, perfumes, aftershave and lotions.

Adidas announced they would be launching a new $ Fit Smart wristband in mid-August The wristband will pair with Adidas' miCoach app, which acts as a personal trainer.[67]

Adilette

Adilette was the first ever pair of sandals made by Adidas, originally developed in [1] Adidas claims that a group of athletes approached Adi Dassler requesting a shoe be made for the locker room. To this day, the resulting sandals are a best-seller.[68] Since the original navy blue and white Adilette sandals were created nearly fifty years ago, more varieties have been created in different colours (black, red, green, grey, orange, brown, yellow, pink, golden, silver). Most recently, Adidas has introduced a colour scheme that goes along with its Predator and adizero line; the scheme is dubbed warning (orange) and purple. Usually, the three stripes appear in the contrasting colour on the strap of the classic models. The most common adilette livery is in navy blue or black, mixed with white colours. Also the Woodilette and Trefoil models follow a similar design but without stripes on the strap.[citation needed]

The model provides a contoured orthopedic rubber sole with synthetic upper, and was designed as an après-sport slide, but the adilette were quickly adopted outside of the sporting world.[citation needed]

Santiossage

The Santiossage is a slide-style sandal. The sandal has the trademarked three stripes on a velcro strap toward the front of the shoe. Santiossage comes in black, navy, or red. On the side of the shoe, toward the heel on either side, the manufacturer's name appears, as well as on a round emblem in the actual heel of the foot-bed. Notably, there are tiny clear massage nubs throughout the foot-bed for the purpose of massaging after-sport footaches, although the sandals are worn casually among non-athletes. Seen through these clear nubs are Adidas' three stripes.[citation needed]

Adissage

Adissage is also a slide sandal. Available in black, navy, light blue, black with pink, and other assorted colors, the sandal has the trademarked three stripes on a velcro strap toward the front of the shoe. On the side of the shoe, toward the heel on either side, the manufacturers name appears, as well as on a round emblem in the actual heel of the footbed. Like the Santiossage, there are tiny black massage nubs throughout the foot-bed for the purpose of massaging foot aches after sport, although popular as a casual sandal amongst non-athletes as well.[citation needed]

Marketing

During the mid to late s, Adidas divided the brand into three main groups with each a separate focus: Adidas Performance was designed to maintain their devotion to the athlete; Adidas Originals was designed to focus on the brand's earlier designs which remained a popular life-style icon; and Style Essentials, which dealt with the fashion market; the main group within this being Y-3 (which is a collaboration between Adidas and renowned Japanese fashion designer Yohji Yamamoto - the Y representing Yamamoto and the 3 representing the three stripes of Adidas).

Launched in , "Impossible is Nothing" is one of the company's most memorable campaigns.[1] The campaign was developed by /TBWA based in Amsterdam, but significant work was also done by TBWA\Chiat\Day in San Francisco.[69] A few years later, Adidas launched a basketball specific campaign -- "Believe in 5ive"—for the NBA season.[70]

In , "Adidas is all in" became the global marketing strategy slogan for Adidas. The slogan aimed to tie all brands and labels together, presenting a unified image to consumers interested in sports, fashion, street, music and pop culture. There appears to be connection with the phrase "all-in" meaning "exhausted" in some English speaking nations.

In , Adidas launched "Creating the New" as its strategic business plan until [71]

Marketing in India

India has been a very speculative market for Adidas.[why?] Despite this Dave Thomas, managing director of Adidas in India is ambitious of the country's potential.[72] The company hopes to double its revenue from Rs. crores by [72] In , the company had signed Ranveer Singh a prominent Bollywood actor as a brand ambassador to the company's products.[73]Ranveer then was a budding actor. The company later decided to use the people's almost religious adoration for the game cricket to promote their brand. It soon launched a new cricket campaign in the country.[74] The campaign was called FeelLoveUseHate with prominent Indian cricketer Virat Kohli.[75] However, in , Virat Kohli was removed as the brand ambassador of the company.[76] The cricketer later signed a major deal with Puma India.[77] The company also sells its products online through e-commerce websites such as Myntra, Snapdeal, Jabong and Amazon. Adidas also has a website dedicated to the Indian audience that markets and sells products to its consumers in India.[78]

Game advertisement

The brand is featured in several games, including Daley Thompson's Olympic Challenge (Commodore Amiga), Adidas power soccer (Sony PlayStation) and Adidas Championship Football (Commodore 64, ZX spectrum, Amstrad CPC).

Collaborations

Adidas has done several collaborations with well known designers, including Jeremy Scott, Alexander Wang, and Raf Simons. They have also reached out to several celebrities, such as Beyoncé, Kanye West, Pharrell Williams, and Stan Smith to create some of the company's most notable and coveted pieces.[79]

Main article: List of Adidas sponsorships

Adidas has numerous major kit deals with football clubs worldwide, including their main sponsor Bayern München.[80] Moreover, their sponsored national teams include Germany, Spain, Mexico, Argentina, Sweden, Japan and Russia.

Adidas has sponsored numerous players, including Lionel Messi, Zinedine Zidane, Kaká, David Beckham, Steven Gerrard, Gareth Bale, Thomas Müller, Xavi, Mesut Özil, James Rodríguez, Iker Casillas, Arjen Robben, Paul Pogba, Dele Alli, Luis Suárez, Ivan Rakitić, Diego Costa, Mohamed Salah, Roberto Firmino, Paulo Dybala, Mats Hummels and Manuel Neuer.[81][82][83][84]

Adidas is one of the official sponsors of the UEFA Champions League, and the Adidas Finale is the competition's official match ball.[45] Along with the Adidas Predator boot, Adidas manufactures the adiPure range of football boots. Adidas provides clothing and equipment for all teams in Major League Soccer (MLS).

In July , Adidas and Manchester United agreed to a ten-year kit deal, beginning with the –16 Premier League season. This kit deal has a guaranteed minimum value of £&#;million (US$&#;billion), making it the most valuable kit deal in sports history, and replaced rival Nike as the club's global equipment partner.[85]

Andy Murrayendorsed Adidas from the start of the season until the end of the seasonreceiving US$&#;million per year.

In November , World Number 4 tennis player Andy Murray was confirmed as Adidas' highest-paid star with a five-year contract reportedly worth US$&#;million.[86] In Cincinnati, at the ATP Tennis Tournament in Mason, they have also sponsored the ball-boy and ball-girl uniforms. Adidas is also partners with Malibu Tennis Camp, Green Fitness GmbH and with Schöler & Micke Sportartikel Vertriebs GmbH.[87]

Adidas has sponsored numerous basketball players past and present like Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Tracy McGrady, as well as Chauncey Billups, Derrick Rose, Brandon Knight, Eric Gordon, Josh Smith, Damian Lillard, Andrew Wiggins, Tim Duncan, Jeremy Lin, Iman Shumpert, John Wall and Nick Young. Adidas endorsed Kobe Bryant with the Adidas Equipment KB8 as his first signature shoe until July [88] The company also endorsed Kevin Garnett until he opted out of his contract in [89]Gilbert Arenas was an Adidas endorser until [90] In August , James Harden left Nike for Adidas by signing a year contract reportedly worth US$&#;million.[91]

In rugby union, Adidas is the current kit supplier to the All Blacks, the France national team, the Italian national rugby team and the South African Stormers and Western Province rugby union teams among others. Adidas is also the New Zealand Rugby Union clothing sponsor and supplies clothing to all Super Rugby franchises, a selection of domestic teams and national referees. Adidas are also the official match ball supplier to the Heineken Cup. Adidas was the British and Irish Lions kit supplier from to They are the jersey manufacturers of the Gold Coast Titans Rugby League club in the Australasian National Rugby League. Dual rugby and league international and former boxer Sonny Bill Williams is a global ambassador for Adidas.

Adidas has provided field hockey equipment and sponsors numerous players of Germany, England, Netherlands, Australia, Spain and Belgium. The company has been the kit provider of Argentine women's and men's teams for over 15 years.[92] The company also sponsored clubs Reading,[93]Beeston[94] and East Grinstead.[95]

In ice hockey, Adidas signed an agreement with National Hockey League (NHL) to be the official outfitter of uniforms and licensed apparel, starting in the –18 season. Adidas will replace its own subsidiary Reebok as official provider.[96]

Adidas' cricket sponsorships include cricketers Lasith Malinga, Kieron Pollard, Dwayne Bravo and K. L. Rahul. Adidas sponsorships Ivan Zaytsev volleyball player. Earvin N'Gapeth volleyball player it advertises as a model and brand ambassador for Adidas.[97][98]

Rivalries

In , it had filed lawsuits against Skechers, one for making a duplicate Stan Smith design, and another for Adidas replicas such as "Springblade".[99]

Corporate information

Current executive board

  • CEO: Kasper Rørsted
  • Chief Financial Officer: Harm Ohlmeyer
  • Global Brands: Eric Liedtke
  • Global Operations: Gil Steyeart
  • Global Sales: Roland Auschel

Former management

Financial information

Year
Sales10, 10, 10, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 21, 23,
EBITDA1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2,
Net income 1, 1, 1, 1,
Net debt2, 1, 2,

Criticism

Adidas' business practises/ethics and commitment to worker welfare have been scrutinised and often criticised.[][]

All Blacks replica rugby jersey pricing controversy

The All Blacks jersey caused controversy

Unhappy with the local price of the Adidas replica All Blacks jersey, New Zealand-based All Blacks fans have asked for price cuts and begun purchasing the jersey from overseas vendors after it was revealed that the local price of NZ$ was more than twice the price offered on some websites.[]

Adidas has responded by enforcing cross-border agreements to stop overseas retailers from selling to New Zealand residents. It has been labelled a public relations disaster by leading New Zealand PR firms and Consumer advocate groups. The largest New Zealand sportswear retailer Rebel Sport has stated it is angry and is considering selling the All Blacks Jerseys to the general public below cost.

"shackle" sneakers

On 14 June , Adidas posted on their Facebook page a picture of a pair of Jeremy Scott-designed shoes containing shackles. The picture was of a planned shoe line that Adidas intended to release in July. The photo quickly caused controversy including that of Jesse Jackson who was quoted as saying "The attempt to commercialize and make popular more than years of human degradation, where blacks were considered three-fifths human by our Constitution is offensive, appalling and insensitive".[] Jackson threatened a boycott, and NBA commissioner David Stern was at one point reportedly contacted in hopes that he would intervene.[] Shortly after the outcry, the company cancelled the product.[]

Sweatshops and labour rights violations

Adidas has been criticized for operating sweatshops, particularly in Indonesia. Between and , Adidas rejected many of its suppliers that supported unions in favour of subcontractors with worse labour rights records.[] By subcontracting work to different suppliers, it is more difficult for Adidas to ensure company labour standards are enforced. Adidas' policy includes the freedom for workers to take part in collective bargaining and a non-retaliation policy towards workers who express concerns.[when?][] In practice, however, many of Adidas' suppliers have not upheld these standards. At the Panarub factory in Java, 33 workers were fired after striking for better pay in [] PT Kizone is another Indonesian factory where Adidas has been criticized over treatment of workers. They produced products for Adidas as well as Nike and the Dallas Cowboys until they closed in January 2, workers who were laid off are owed $3 million in severance pay and benefits. Nike has contributed $ million but Adidas has not acted. A campaign has been initiated by United Students Against Sweatshops calling for universities to cut contracts with Adidas.[] On 16 July , War on Want organised activists in London to replace Adidas price tags in sports stores with 34p ones,[] a reference to the low hourly wage rate paid to the Indonesian workers who make Adidas goods.[] The campaign group Labour Behind the Label claimed that the basic pay of Indonesian Adidas workers was only £10 a week. William Anderson, head of social and environmental affairs for the Asia Pacific region, posted an entry on the company blog in which he claimed that total wages including bonuses and overtime were often double the hourly wage, and drew attention to purchasing power parity.[]

In April , one of the biggest strikes on mainland China took place at the Yue Yuen Industrial Holdings Dongguan shoe factory, producing amongst others for Adidas.[]

Soviet themed items, and advertising

In , Adidas promoted a line of Soviet themed items. After a social media outcry, they were taken off the market.[]

NCAA corruption scandal

Adidas executive James Gatto has been indicted in the NCAA Division I men's basketball corruption scandal.[][][]

Racial diversity controversy

In June , the head of global human resources at Adidas voluntarily stepped down after black employees raised concerns about her failure to address racism and discrimination in the workplace.[] The former HR chief had also made a comment about racism being "noise," in addition to not adequately addressing workforce diversity.[] Upon her resignation, she made a statement saying that she supports the company's continued progress towards racial justice and offered an apology.[][][]

See also

References

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    &#; The knitted upper and lightweight construction means you can expect a few bruised toes, even if you puma rugby boots rucks as much as possible

    Mizuno Neo 3 Made in Japan SG Boots

    (Mizuno)

    Let&#;s deal with the obvious first of all, yes these are almost £ That may sound excessive for a pair of boots but the Neo 3s are on a different level. The K-Leather upper provides extreme comfort and ball control for kickers. The fit achieves the rare combination of being sock like but without being sloppy or overly flexible.

    The sole comes with a combination of studs and moulds which, aside from in extremely poor weather, should allow year round usage.

    + A very classy colour scheme to fit the premium boot.

    + Year round usage without any excess weight.

    These will be puma rugby boots too expensive for many players.

    Adidas Predator XP FG Boots

    (Adidas)

    As a kid the Predator was the boot you had to have if you were playing football. That boot has evolved to this. The Predator XP has a knit upper to provide breathability but puma rugby boots is combined with foot security so you can dart left and right and know that your foot will be held in place.

    Asymmetrical laces increase the contact patch so you can be confident armadillo fence staining reviews a consistent outcome when kicking.

    + Extra padding around the ankle cuff will protect your ankle joint from any impact

    + Lightweight and comfortable but with a secure fit to allow for fast footwork

    &#; The firm ground studs probably won’t offer enough traction in the midwinter so you will need a second pair for soft ground

    Adidas casinoextra.frd 1 FG Boots

    (Adidas)

    Ideal for speedy backs who steer clear of the rough stuff or prioritise accurate kicking over the odd bruise. Exceptionally lightweight construction and sock like comfort will leave you feeling like you’re not wearing any shoes at all.

    A carbon-fibre insert under the foot means that all power is sent straight through the turf to fire you forward rather than lost in a bendy sole. There is plenty of space on the toe and instep for consistent and accurate kicking, whether at goal puma rugby boots sliding through a grubber.

    + Exceptionally lightweight but more than comfortable enough to wear for hours on end

    + Ideal for kickers who want a clear contact patch between boot and ball

    &#; Right at the top end of the budget for most and, unless you live somewhere warm and dry, unusable in the winter months

    MORE RUGBY BOOTS BUYERS&#; GUIDES

    A buyers' guide to the best boots for…

    Best Rugby Boots for Kickers

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    best rugby boots for wingers

    A buyers' guide featuring boots for the players…

    Puma Future Netfit FG/AG Boots

    Best Rugby Boots for Backs

    (Puma)

    The Future is aptly named, this is what rugby boots will become. Part sock and part boot, the Future is super lightweight but with a lacing system which keeps the foot firmly locked down.

    That means despite the flimsy looking exterior they will allow you to dance around with as much confidence as any ‘normal’ looking boot, puma rugby boots. Unsurprisingly, for a football boot, the contact area is ideal for kickers.

    + Perfect for powering through the line or dancing past a defender, thanks to excellent foot security

    + Great on hard surfaces and synthetic ground, this offer usage in all but the worst conditions

    &#; The colour scheme might be a bit out there for some, although the Battenburg styling will appeal to those who like to stand out

    Canterbury Speed SG Boots

    Best Rugby Boots for Backs

    (Canterbury)

    The eye-catching Speed packs a lot into a reasonably priced boot. These are built with speed in mind so the construction is lightweight without compromising on power transfer puma rugby boots long term wear. The combination mould/stud liberty north football schedule will provide adequate traction year round without weighing you down.

    Ideal for kickers thanks to the asymmetric laces which keep the contact zone clear.

    + A reasonably priced boot which can do it all

    + A clean but not boring look thanks to the black and yellow contrast

    &#; As the name suggests, these don’t come with much in the way of protection

    Under Armour Clutchfit Force FG Boots

    Best Rugby Boots for Backs

    (Under Armour)

    These boots from Under Armour are the perfect match for any fleet-footed back. The padded insole and ankle cuff provide great comfort without compromising on performance.

    The colour might not be corunna golf course everyone but we all know that red is the fastest colour! Combine that with a hard-wearing outer and these are boots you will be able to enjoy season after season.

    + The red colour scheme is breathtaking and will stand out on any pitch

    + Extremely comfortable for all day wear

    &#; With only plastic moulded studs these may not offer enough grip in deep winter

    Adidas Predator Malice Control SG Boots

    (Adidas)

    The Malice Control boots from Adidas will split opinion. The hedgehog-like dimples provide control and accuracy for kickers while the asymmetric lacing provides more space to strike the ball. Foam Sensepods in the heel shrink and expand to fill space to ensure the optimum puma rugby boots without rubbing.

    The upper is crafted from 50% recycled materials and is lightweight but with some protection from rogue boots. The sole provides excellent traction on wet grass without adding weight.

    + Exceptionally lightweight but more than comfortable enough to wear for hours on end.

    + Ideal for puma rugby boots who want a clear contact patch between boot and ball.

    Right at the top end of the budget for most.

    That completes our round-up of the best rugby boots for backs in

    Can’t get to the shops? You can download the digital edition of Rugby World straight to your tablet or subscribe to the print edition to get the magazine delivered to your door.

    Please follow Rugby World on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.

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    Adidas

    German multinational corporation

    This article is about the company. For other uses, puma rugby boots, see Adidas (disambiguation).

    Adidas casinoextra.fr
    Herzogenaurach - Adidas - jpg

    Adidas factory in Herzogenaurach,
    July

    FormerlyDassler Brothers Shoe Factory (Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik) (–)
    TypeAktiengesellschaft

    Traded as

    FWB:&#;ADS
    OTC Pink: ADDYY
    DAX Component
    IndustryTextile, footwear
    FoundedJuly&#;; 97&#;years ago&#;() (as Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik)
    18&#;August ; 72 years ago&#;() (as Adidas)[1]
    FounderAdolf Dassler
    Headquarters

    Herzogenaurach

    ,

    Germany

    Area served

    Worldwide

    Key people

    ProductsApparel, wilkes university mens volleyball, sportswear, puma rugby boots, sports equipment, toiletries
    RevenueIncrease€&#;billion ()[3]

    Operating income

    Increase €&#;billion ()[3]

    Net income

    Increase €&#;billion ()[3]
    Total assetsIncrease €&#;billion ()[3]
    Total equityIncrease €&#;billion ()[3]

    Number of employees

    57, ()[3]
    Subsidiaries
    Websitecasinoextra.fr
    casinoextra.fr

    Adidas AG (German: [ˈʔadiˌdas]; stylized as adidas since [4]) is a German multinational corporation, founded and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, Germany, that designs and manufactures shoes, clothing and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, and the second largest in the world, after Nike.[5][6] Puma rugby boots is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, puma rugby boots, % of the German football club Bayern München,[7] and Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company. Adidas' revenue for was listed at € billion.[3]

    The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house; he was joined by his elder brother Rudolf in under the name Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik ("Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory"). Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes (spikes) for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U.S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the Summer Olympics. Infollowing a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, and Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.[1]

    The three stripes are Adidas' identity mark, having been used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports for the equivalent of €1, puma rugby boots, and two bottles of whiskey,[8][9] became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company".[8][10]

    History

    Early days

    (left): Adolf Dassler, founder of Adidas, c. ; (right): the 'Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory' near Herzogenaurach train station in

    The company was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In Julyhis older brother Rudolf joined the business, puma rugby boots, which became "Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory" (Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik).[11] The electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment.[12]

    Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes (spikes) for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber.[13] InDassler persuaded U.S. sprinterJesse Puma rugby boots to use his hand made spikes at the Summer Olympics. Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were sellingpairs of shoes every year before World War II.[14]

    Both Dassler brothers joined the NSDAP in May and became also members of the National Socialist Motor Corps.[15] Furthermore, Adolf took the rank of Sportwart in the Hitler Youth from until the end of the war.[16] During the war, the company was running the last sport shoe factory in the country and predominantly supplied the Wehrmacht with shoes. In the shoe production was forced to cease operations and the company's facilities and workforce was used to manufacture anti-tank weapons, puma rugby boots. From to at least nine forced labourers were working at both sites of the company.[17]

    The Dassler factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in by US forces, but was spared when Adolf Dassler's wife convinced the American soldiers that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes.[18]

    Split and rivalry with Puma

    The brothers split up in after relations between them had broken down,[19] with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler, later rebranded Puma, and Adolf forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August An urban myth has promulgated the puma rugby boots Day I Dream About Sports.[1]

    Puma SE and Adidas entered into a fierce and bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks" — people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore.[20] Even the town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear.[12] When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to go to the basement and pick out a pair of free Pumas.[12] The two brothers never reconciled and although they are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible.[21]

    Inthe first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, puma rugby boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years later, at the Summer Olympics, metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland.[citation needed]

    At the Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in puma rugby boots meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment, but Adidas rejected this request. The German won gold in Pumas, but then laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both, but Adi was so enraged he banned the Olympic champion.[14]

    Corporate image

    See also: Three stripes

    (left): The original trefoil Adidas logo until It is now used on the Adidas Originals heritage line. (right): The current logo. It was designed in puma rugby boots the Equipment line, then adopted as the corporate logo.

    Infollowing the Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of €[9][22]

    The Trefoil logo was designed in and launched in ,[23] just in time for the Summer Olympics held in Munich.[24] This logo lasted untilwhen the company introduced the "three bars" logo (that had been designed by then Creative Director Peter Moore), initially used on the Equipment range of products.[23]

    Tapie affair

    Bernard Tapie, a former French businessman who once owned Adidas but has since relinquished his control over the company due to debt

    After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler inthe company was bought in by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣ billion (now €&#;million), which Tapie borrowed.[25] Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune.

    Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia, puma rugby boots. He also hired Madonna for promotion.[26][citation needed] He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants (Amelia Randall Dassler and Bella Beck Dassler) and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there.

    Inunable to pay puma rugby boots loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas,[27] and the bank subsequently converted the outstanding debt puma rugby boots into equity of the enterprise, which was unusual as per the prevalent French banking practice. The state-owned bank had tried bostonville sports bar get Tapie out of dire financial straits as a personal favour to Tapie, it is reported, because Tapie was Minister of Urban Affairs (ministre de la Ville) in the French government at the time.

    Robert Louis-Dreyfus, a friend of Bernard Tapie, became the new CEO of the company in He was also the president of Olympique de Marseille, a team Tapie had owned until [28] Tapie filed for personal bankruptcy in [27] He was the object of several lawsuits, notably related to match fixing at the football club. Duringhe served 6 months of an month prison sentence in La Santé prison in Paris. In FebruaryCrédit Lyonnais sold Adidas to Louis-Dreyfus for a much higher amount of money than Tapie owed, &#;billion (€&#;million) francs rather puma rugby boots &#;billion (€&#;million). They also purposely bankrupted Tapie's company that owned Adidas, because only the company had the right to sue them.

    Post-Tapie era

    Incombined with FIFA Youth Group, SOS Children's Villages became puma rugby boots main beneficiary.

    InAdidas AG acquired the Salomon Group who specialized in ski wear, and its official corporate name was changed to Adidas-Salomon AG. With this acquisition Adidas also acquired the Taylormade Golf company and Maxfli, which allowed them to compete with Nike Golf.

    InAdidas sued the NCAA over their rules limiting the size and number of commercial logos on team uniforms and team clothing. Adidas withdrew the suit, and the two groups established guidelines as to what three-stripe designs would be considered uses of the Adidas trademark.

    As CEO of Adidas, Louis-Dreyfus quadrupled revenue to € billion ($ billion) from through [29] Inhe announced he would resign the following year, due to illness.

    InAdidas filed a lawsuit in a British court challenging Fitness World Trading's use of a two-stripe motif similar table tennis coventry Adidas' three stripes. The court ruled that despite the simplicity of the mark, Fitness World 's use was infringing because the public could establish a link between that use and Adidas' mark.[30]

    In Septemberpuma rugby boots, top English fashion designer Stella McCartney launched a joint-venture line with Adidas, establishing a long-term partnership with the corporation. This line is a sports performance collection for women called "Adidas by Stella McCartney",[31] and it has been critically acclaimed.[32]

    Also, on 3 MayAdidas told the public that they sold their partner company Salomon Group for €m to Amer Sports of Finland, puma rugby boots. In AugustAdidas declared its intention to buy Reebok for $&#;billion (US$). This takeover was completed with partnership in January [1] and meant that the company had business sales closer to those of Nike in North America. The acquisition of Reebok also allowed Adidas to compete with Nike worldwide as the number two athletic shoemaker in the world.[33]

    Adidas has global corporate headquarters in Germany, and many other business locations around the world such as Portland OR, Hong Kong, Toronto, Taiwan, England, Japan, Australia, and Spain.

    Adidas has long been a popular manufacturer of astro turf football shoes – shown here a recent pair that has been a popular choice

    InAdidas introduced the Adidas 1, the first ever production shoe to use a microprocessor. Dubbed by the company "The World's First Intelligent Shoe", it features a microprocessor capable of performing 5 million calculations per second that automatically adjusts the shoe's level of cushioning to suit its environment. The shoe requires a small, user-replaceable battery that lasts for approximately hours of running. On 25 NovemberAdidas released a new version of the Adidas 1 with an increased range of cushioning, allowing the shoe to become softer or firmer, and a new motor with percent more torque.[34]

    On 11 AprilAdidas announced an year puma rugby boots to become the official NBA clothing provider. The company has been making NBA, NBDL, and WNBA jerseys and products as well as team-coloured versions of the "Superstar" basketball shoe. This deal (worth over $&#;million) took over the previous Reebok deal that had been put in place in for 10 years.

    In NovemberAdidas announced that it would acquire outdoor action sport performance brand Five Kika soccer through a share purchase agreement. The total purchase price was US$25 million in cash at closing.[35]

    By the end of puma rugby boots, Adidas was reporting their highest revenues ever and Chief Executive Herbert Hainer expressed optimism for the year ahead.[36]

    In JanuaryAdidas launched the footwear industry's first reservation mobile app. The Adidas Confirmed app allows consumers to get access to and reserve the brand's limited edition sneakers by using geo targeting technology.[37]

    On 24 MarchAdidas and McDonald's unveiled the McDonald's All-American uniforms. For the third year in a row, players will be wearing short-sleeved jerseys, made with the same lightweight and breathable material as the ones used in the NBA.[38]

    In AugustAdidas acquired fitness technology firm Runtastic for approximately $ million.[39]

    In May Adidas sold TaylorMade golf company (including Ashworth) to KPS Capital Partners for $ million.[40]

    Products

    Apparel

    Adidas sells a range of clothing items, varying from men's and women's t-shirts, jackets, hoodies, pants and leggings.[41]

    The first Adidas item of apparel was the Franz Beckenbauer tracksuit created in [1] Adidas AG is the largest manufacturer of sports bras in Europe, and the second largest manufacturer in the world.[42]

    Sportswear

    One of the main focuses of Adidas has always been football kits, and the associated equipment. Adidas remains a major company in the global supply of team kits for international association football teams and clubs.

    Adidas makes referee kits that are used in international competition and by many countries and leagues in the world. The company has been an innovator in the area of footwear for the champerico guatemala surf, with notable examples including the release of the Copa Mundial moulded boot used for matches on firm dry pitches. It holds the accolade of the best selling boot of all time. The soft-ground equivalent was named World Cup and it too remains on the market.

    SinceFIFA, the world governing body of football, has commissioned specially designedfootballs for use in its own World Cup tournaments. The Adidas Telstar was the first ball commissioned for the World Cup in The balls supplied for the World Cup, the "Teamgeist", were particularly noteworthy for their ability to travel further than previous types when struck, leading to longer range goals. Goalkeepers were generally believed to be less comfortable with the design of the ball, claiming it was prone to move significantly and unpredictably in flight.[43]

    Adidas introduced the Jabulani for the World Cup. The ball was designed and developed by Loughborough University in conjunction with Bayern Munich. The Adidas Brazuca for the World Cup was the first World Cup ball named by the puma rugby boots is one of the official sponsors of the UEFA Champions League, and the Adidas Finale is the competition's official match ball.[45] Along with the aforementioned Adidas Predator boot, Adidas manufactures the adiPure range of football boots. Adidas named an official match ball of the UEFA Euro tournament the Adidas Beau Jeu which translates to "The Beautiful Game" in English.[46] Adidas provides clothing and equipment for all teams in Major League Soccer.

    Baseball

    Adidas has also provided baseball equipment and sponsors numerous players of Major League Baseball and Nippon Professional Baseball in Japan.

    Adidas Baseball hardgoods are licensed to Dick's Sporting Goods.[47]

    From toAdidas sponsored New York Yankees.[48]

    Basketball

    Adidas' Superstar and Pro Model shoes, affectionately known as "shelltoes" for their stylized hard rubber toe box, were fueled by, among others, coaches such as UCLA's John Wooden.[49] Adidas drew about even with Converse in basketball by the mid s before both started to fall behind then-upstart Nike in the early s.[50] Subsequently, Adidas Superstar became very popular in the s hip hop streetwear scene alongside Adidas' stripe-sided polyester suits.[citation needed]

    From toAdidas was the uniform supplier of all the 30 teams in the National Basketball Association, replacing the Reebok brand after Adidas' acquisition of Reebok. Adidas was replaced by Nike as the official uniform supplier of the league after the –17 season.[51]

    Cricket

    Indian cricketer Sachin Snowboard nutcracker, batting with his personalized Adidas cricket bat

    Adidas began manufacturing cricket footwear in the mid s, with their initial target market being Australia. Their shoes were a radical departure from traditional leather puma rugby boots boots which had remained basically unchanged for decades, being lighter and more flexible but also offering less toe protection, so that it became not uncommon to see batsmen who had been puma rugby boots by the ball on the foot hopping around in pain. Having continued to manufacture cricket footwear for many years, in the company finally entered the field of bat manufacture in and currently their bat range includes the Pellara, Incurza, Libro and M-Blaster models.

    In the s, Adidas signed the superstar Indian batsman Sachin Tendulkar and made shoes for him.[52] From until puma rugby boots retirement, Adidas had sponsored the cricket bat used by Tendulkar. It created a new bat, 'Adidas MasterBlaster Elite', personalized for him.

    InAdidas made a concerted move into English cricket market by sponsoring English batting star Kevin Pietersen after the cancellation of his lifetime deal with Woodworm, when they ran into financial difficulties.[53] The following year they signed up fellow England player Ian Bell, Pakistan opening batsman Salman Butt and Indian Player Ravindra Jadeja.

    In the Indian Premier League (IPL), Adidas sponsored the team Mumbai Indians from to and Puma rugby boots Daredevils from to [54] They were the official sponsors of Pune Warriors India in weighted baseballs for salehowever the team was banned from IPL due to payment issues. In Season, Adidas sponsored Royal Challengers Bangalore.

    Golf

    Adidas Golf manufactures golf clothing, footwear, and accessories. Men's and women's equipment includes footwear, shirts, shorts, pants, outerwear (wind suits), base layer and eyewear.[55]

    Gymnastics

    From toAdidas has provided men's and women's gymnastics wear for Team USA, through USA Gymnastics. USA Gymnastics and Adidas sponsorship concluded at the end of InAdidas gymnastics leotards for women and Adidas men's competition shirts, gymnastics pants and gymnastics shorts have been available in the United States, with seasonal leotards offered for Spring, Summer, Fall and Holidays, puma rugby boots. Adidas previous collaborated with GK Elite, since SpringAdidas gymnastics products have been available worldwide through Elegant Sports. USA Olympic team members McKayla Maroney, Jordyn Wieber, Jake Dalton and Danell Leyva are all sponsored by Adidas gymnastics.

    Ice hockey

    Adidas has been providing uniforms for the National Hockey League since the season, replacing Reebok.[56]

    Lacrosse

    InAdidas announced its entering to the lacrosse equipment, also sponsoring the Adidas National Lacrosse Classic in July for the top high school underclassmen players in the United States.[57] The company made their self into their own brand such as "Adidas Lacrosse", getting several scholarships, Bucknell (men and women), puma rugby boots, Bryant (men), Delaware (men and women), New Jersey Institute of Technology (men), and D3 powerhouse Lynchburg (men and women in fall of with soft good only)". Materials that adidas provided were jerseys, shorts, shoes, shafts, heads, gloves, and protective pieces.[58]

    Products manufactured for the sport are sticks, gloves, protective gear and boots.[59]

    Running

    Adidas currently manufactures several running and lifestyle shoes, including the Energy-boost, and the spring-blade trainers.[needs update] The brand has built a strong runners' network within big European capitals, such as Paris' "Boost Energy League". In the 3rd season launched. In Paris, the Boost Energy League gathers 11 teams representing different districts of Paris.[60]

    Adidas launched two new color ways of the NMD R1 and one new color way of the NMD XR1 in September [61] adidas EQT is a style of sneakers from adidas. It originated in the early 90s and relaunched puma rugby boots The latest adidas EQT line released in a "Turo Red" Pack on 26 Januarypuma rugby boots, and included models such as the adidas EQT Support 93/17, puma rugby boots, EQT Support ADV, and EQT Support Ultra. casinoextra.fr is one of the few online retailers.

    Adidas running shoe demo in Boston

    In NovemberAdidas teased a sneaker made from ocean plastic. The shoe is created from a fabric called "Biosteel". The shoe is called the "Adidas Futurecraft Biofabric." The material used is 15% lighter than conventional silk fibers, and is % biodegradable. The shoe only begin to dissolve when it is put in contact with a high concentration of the digestion enzyme proteinase, which occurs naturally. Once this happens, the shoes can decompose puma rugby boots 36 hours. The shoe was never released.[62]

    Skateboarding

    Adidas Skateboarding produces shoes made specifically for skateboarding, including the redesign of previous models for skateboarding. The brand also releases signature models designed by team riders.[63]

    Tennis

    Adidas has been involved with tennis equipment since the mid giro chrono sport short and has historically sponsored many top tennis players, beginning with two of the most dominant male tennis players at the start of the professional era in the late s, Stan Smith and Ilie Nastase. During the s and s, not only were they exclusive apparel and footwear sponsors of world number one men's tennis players Ivan Lendl and Stefan Edberg and ladies' world puma rugby boots one Steffi Graf but each player had their own, puma rugby boots, exclusive graphic styles puma rugby boots for their use during play, which were in turn marketed to the general public. Ivan Lendl even spent the vast majority of his dominant career playing with several different models of Adidas tennis racquets, primarily using the legendary Adidas GTX-Pro and then later the Adidas GTX Pro-T. The company recently introduced a new line of tennis racquets. While the Feather is made for the "regular player", and the Response for the "club player", Adidas targets the "tournament player" with the oz Barricade tour model.[64]

    Kabaddi

    Adidas entered Kabaddi which is still a non-Olympic sport but highly popular in the Indian subcontinent and Asian countries, puma rugby boots. Inwith the launch of Pro Kabaddi League a city based franchise league in India, kabaddi took the region with storm. Inpuma rugby boots, they tied up with Mumbai-based franchise U Mumba.[65]

    "The association of kabaddi with adidas is a clear exemplification of the growth of the sport over the last two years," shared U Sports CEO, Supratik Sen.

    Accessories

    Adidas "Fresh Impact" - Limited Edition bottle

    Adidas also designs and makes slide-style sandals, mobile accessories,[66] watches, eyewear, bags, baseball caps, and socks. As well, Puma rugby boots has a branded range of male and female deodorants, perfumes, aftershave and lotions.

    Adidas announced they would be launching a new $ Fit Smart wristband in mid-August The wristband will pair with Adidas' miCoach app, which acts as a personal trainer.[67]

    Adilette

    Adilette was the first ever pair of sandals made by Adidas, originally developed in [1] Adidas claims that a group of athletes approached Adi Dassler requesting a shoe be made for the locker room. To this day, the resulting sandals are a best-seller.[68] Since the original navy blue and white Adilette sandals were created nearly fifty years ago, more varieties have been created puma rugby boots different colours (black, red, green, grey, orange, brown, yellow, pink, golden, silver). Most recently, Adidas has introduced a colour scheme that goes along with its Predator and adizero line; the scheme is dubbed warning (orange) and purple. Usually, the three stripes appear in the contrasting colour on the strap of the classic models. The most common adilette livery is in navy blue or black, mixed with white colours. Also the Woodilette and Trefoil models follow a similar design but without stripes on the strap.[citation needed]

    The model provides a contoured orthopedic rubber sole with synthetic upper, and was designed as an après-sport slide, but the adilette were quickly adopted outside of the sporting world.[citation needed]

    Santiossage

    The Santiossage is a slide-style sandal. The sandal has the trademarked three stripes on a velcro strap toward the front of the shoe. Santiossage comes in black, navy, or red. On the side of the shoe, toward the heel on either side, the manufacturer's name appears, as well as on a round emblem in the actual heel of the foot-bed, puma rugby boots. Notably, there are tiny clear massage nubs throughout the foot-bed for the purpose of massaging after-sport footaches, although the sandals are worn casually among non-athletes. Seen through these clear nubs are Adidas' three stripes.[citation needed]

    Adissage

    Adissage is also a slide sandal. Available in black, navy, light blue, black with pink, and other assorted colors, the sandal has the trademarked three stripes on a velcro strap toward the front of the shoe. On the side of the shoe, toward the heel on either side, the manufacturers name appears, as well as on a round emblem in the actual heel of the footbed. Like the Santiossage, there are tiny black massage nubs throughout the foot-bed for the purpose of massaging foot aches after sport, although popular as a casual sandal amongst non-athletes as well.[citation needed]

    Marketing

    During the mid to late s, Adidas divided the brand into three main groups with each a separate focus: Adidas Performance was designed to maintain their devotion to the athlete; Adidas Originals was designed to focus on the brand's earlier designs which remained a popular life-style icon; and Style Essentials, which dealt with the fashion market; the main group within this being Y-3 (which is a collaboration between Adidas and renowned Japanese fashion designer Yohji Yamamoto - the Y representing Yamamoto and the 3 representing the three stripes of Adidas).

    Launched in"Impossible is Nothing" is one of the company's most memorable campaigns.[1] The campaign was developed by /TBWA based in Amsterdam, but significant work was also done by TBWA\Chiat\Day in San Francisco.[69] A few years later, Adidas launched a basketball specific campaign -- "Believe in 5ive"—for the NBA season.[70]

    In"Adidas is all in" became the global marketing strategy slogan for Adidas. The slogan aimed to tie all brands and labels together, presenting a unified image to consumers interested in sports, fashion, street, music and pop culture. There appears to be connection with the phrase "all-in" meaning "exhausted" in some English speaking nations.

    InAdidas launched "Creating the New" as its strategic business plan until [71]

    Marketing in India

    India has been a very speculative market for Adidas.[why?] Despite this Dave Thomas, managing director of Adidas in India is ambitious of the country's potential.[72] The company hopes to double its revenue from Rs. crores by [72] Inpuma rugby boots, the company had signed Ranveer Singh a prominent Bollywood actor as a puma rugby boots ambassador to the company's products.[73]Ranveer then was a budding actor. The company later decided to use the people's almost religious adoration for the game cricket to promote their brand. It soon launched a new cricket campaign in the country.[74] The campaign was called FeelLoveUseHate with prominent Indian cricketer Virat Kohli.[75] However, inVirat Kohli was removed as the brand ambassador of the company.[76] The cricketer later signed a major deal with Puma India.[77] The company also sells its products online through e-commerce websites such as Myntra, Snapdeal, Jabong and Amazon. Adidas also has a website dedicated to the Indian audience that markets and sells products to its consumers in India.[78]

    Game advertisement

    The brand is featured in several games, including Daley Thompson's Olympic Challenge (Commodore Amiga), puma rugby boots, Adidas power soccer (Sony PlayStation) and Adidas Championship Football (Commodore 64, ZX spectrum, Amstrad CPC). southlake carroll girls soccer has done several collaborations with well known designers, including Jeremy Scott, Alexander Wang, and Raf Simons. They have also reached out to several celebrities, such as Beyoncé, Kanye West, Pharrell Williams, puma rugby boots, and Stan Smith to create some of the company's most notable and coveted pieces.[79]

    Main article: List of Adidas sponsorships

    Adidas has numerous major kit deals with football clubs worldwide, including their main sponsor Bayern München.[80] Moreover, their sponsored national teams include Germany, Spain, Mexico, Argentina, Sweden, Japan and Russia.

    Adidas has sponsored numerous players, including Lionel Messi, Zinedine Zidane, Kaká, David Beckham, Steven Gerrard, Gareth Bale, Thomas Müller, Xavi, Mesut Özil, James Rodríguez, Iker Casillas, Arjen Robben, Paul Pogba, Dele Alli, Luis Suárez, Ivan Rakitić, Diego Costa, Mohamed Salah, Roberto Firmino, Paulo Dybala, Mats Hummels and Manuel Neuer.[81][82][83][84]

    Adidas is one of the official sponsors of the UEFA Champions League, puma rugby boots, and the Adidas Finale is the competition's official match ball.[45] Along with the Adidas Predator boot, Adidas manufactures the adiPure range of football boots. Adidas provides clothing and equipment for all teams in Major League Soccer (MLS).

    In JulyAdidas and Manchester United agreed to a ten-year kit deal, beginning with the –16 Premier League season. This kit deal has a guaranteed minimum value of £&#;million (US$&#;billion), making it the most valuable kit deal in sports history, and replaced rival Nike as the club's global equipment partner.[85]

    Andy Murrayendorsed Adidas from the start of the season until the end of the seasonreceiving US$&#;million per year.

    In NovemberWorld Number 4 tennis player Andy Murray was confirmed as Adidas' highest-paid star with a five-year contract reportedly worth US$&#;million.[86] In Hyundai accent sport usado, at the ATP Tennis Tournament in Mason, they have also sponsored the ball-boy and ball-girl uniforms. Adidas is also partners with Malibu Tennis Camp, Green Fitness GmbH and with Schöler & Micke Sportartikel Vertriebs GmbH.[87]

    Adidas has sponsored numerous basketball players past and present like Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Tracy McGrady, as well as Chauncey Billups, Derrick Rose, Brandon Knight, Eric Gordon, Josh Smith, Damian Lillard, Andrew Wiggins, Tim Duncan, Jeremy Lin, Iman Shumpert, John Wall and Nick Young. Adidas endorsed Kobe Bryant with the Adidas Equipment KB8 as his first signature shoe until July [88] The company also endorsed Kevin Garnett until he opted out of his contract in [89]Gilbert Arenas was an Adidas endorser until [90] In AugustJames Harden left Nike for Adidas by signing a year contract reportedly worth US$&#;million.[91]

    In rugby union, Adidas is the current kit supplier to the All Blacks, the France national team, the Italian national rugby team and the South African Stormers and Western Province rugby union teams among others. Adidas is also the New Zealand Rugby Union clothing sponsor and supplies clothing to all Super Rugby franchises, a selection of domestic teams and national referees. Adidas are also the official match ball supplier to the Heineken Cup. Adidas was the British and Irish Lions kit supplier from to They are the jersey manufacturers of the Gold Coast Titans Rugby League club in the Australasian National Rugby League. Dual rugby and league international and former boxer Sonny Bill Williams is a global ambassador for Adidas.

    Adidas has provided field hockey equipment and sponsors numerous players of Germany, England, Netherlands, Australia, Spain and Belgium. The company has been the kit provider of Argentine women's and men's teams for over 15 years.[92] The company also sponsored clubs Reading,[93]Beeston[94] and East Grinstead.[95]

    In ice hockey, Adidas signed an agreement with National Hockey League (NHL) to be the official outfitter of uniforms and licensed apparel, starting in the –18 season. Adidas will replace its own subsidiary Reebok as official provider.[96]

    Adidas' cricket sponsorships include cricketers Lasith Malinga, Kieron Pollard, Dwayne Bravo and K. L. Rahul, puma rugby boots. Adidas sponsorships Ivan Zaytsev volleyball player. Earvin N'Gapeth volleyball player it advertises as a model and brand ambassador for Adidas.[97][98]

    Rivalries

    Init had filed lawsuits against Skechers, one for making a duplicate Stan Smith design, and another for Adidas replicas such as "Springblade".[99]

    Corporate information

    Current executive board

    • CEO: Kasper Rørsted
    • Chief Financial Officer: Harm Ohlmeyer
    • Global Brands: Eric Liedtke
    • Global Operations: Gil Steyeart
    • Global Sales: Roland Auschel

    Former management

    Financial information

    Year
    Sales10, 10, 10, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 19, 21, 21, 23,
    EBITDA1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, puma rugby boots, 2, 2, 2,
    Net income 1, 1, 1, 1,
    Net debt2, 1, 2,

    Criticism

    Adidas' business practises/ethics and commitment to worker welfare have been scrutinised and often criticised.[][]

    All Blacks replica rugby jersey pricing controversy

    The All Blacks jersey caused controversy

    Unhappy with the local price of the Adidas replica All Blacks jersey, New Zealand-based All Blacks fans have asked for price cuts and begun purchasing the jersey from overseas vendors after it was revealed that the local price of NZ$ was more than twice the price offered on some websites.[]

    Adidas has responded by enforcing cross-border agreements to stop overseas retailers from selling to New Zealand residents. It has been labelled a public relations disaster by leading New Zealand PR firms and Consumer advocate groups. The largest New Zealand sportswear retailer Rebel Sport has stated it is angry and is considering selling the All Blacks Jerseys to the general public below cost.

    "shackle" sneakers

    On 14 JuneAdidas posted on their Facebook page a picture of a pair of Jeremy Scott-designed shoes containing shackles. The picture was of a planned shoe line that Adidas intended to release in July. The photo quickly caused controversy including that of Jesse Jackson who was quoted as saying "The attempt to commercialize and make popular more than years of human degradation, where blacks were considered three-fifths human by our Constitution is offensive, appalling puma rugby boots insensitive".[] Jackson threatened a boycott, and NBA commissioner David Stern was at one point reportedly contacted in hopes that he would intervene.[] Shortly after the outcry, the company cancelled the product.[]

    Sweatshops and labour rights violations

    Adidas has been criticized for operating sweatshops, particularly in Indonesia, puma rugby boots. Between and oregon cheerleading competitions, Adidas rejected many of its suppliers that supported unions in favour of subcontractors with worse labour rights records.[] By subcontracting work to different suppliers, it is more difficult for Adidas to ensure company labour standards are enforced. Adidas' policy includes the freedom for puma rugby boots to take part in collective bargaining and a non-retaliation policy towards workers who express concerns.[when?][] In practice, however, many of Adidas' suppliers have not upheld these standards. At the Panarub factory in Java, 33 workers were fired after striking for better pay in [] PT Kizone is another Indonesian factory where Adidas has been criticized over treatment of workers. They produced products for Adidas as well as Nike and the Dallas Cowboys until they closed in January 2, workers who were laid off are owed $3 million in severance pay and benefits. Nike has contributed $ million but Adidas has not acted. A puma rugby boots has been initiated by United Students Against Sweatshops calling for universities to cut contracts with Adidas.[] On 16 JulyWar on Want organised activists in London to replace Adidas price tags in sports stores with 34p ones,[] a reference to the low hourly wage rate paid to the Indonesian workers who make Adidas goods.[] Puma rugby boots campaign group Labour Behind the Label claimed that the basic pay of Indonesian Adidas workers was only £10 a week. William Anderson, head of social and environmental affairs for the Asia Pacific region, posted an entry on the company blog in which he claimed that total wages including bonuses and overtime were often double the hourly wage, and drew attention to purchasing power parity.[]

    In Aprilone of the biggest strikes on mainland China took place at the Yue Yuen Industrial Holdings Dongguan shoe factory, producing amongst others for Adidas.[]

    Soviet themed items, and advertising

    InAdidas promoted a line of Soviet themed items. After a social media outcry, they were taken off the market.[]

    NCAA corruption scandal

    Adidas executive James Gatto has been indicted in the NCAA Division I men's basketball corruption scandal.[][][]

    Racial diversity controversy

    In Junethe head of global human resources at Adidas voluntarily stepped down after black employees raised concerns about her failure to address racism and discrimination in the workplace.[] The former HR chief puma rugby boots also made a comment about racism being "noise," in addition to not adequately addressing workforce diversity.[] Upon her resignation, she made a statement saying that she supports the company's continued progress towards racial justice and offered an apology.[][][]

    See also

    References

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    Источник: [casinoextra.fr]
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